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Full text of "Remodeled farmhouses"



REMODELED 
FARMHOUSES 



MAKf H.NORTHEND 



il 







Presented to the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 
LIBRARY 

by the 

ONTARIO LEGISLATIVE 
LIBRARY 

1980 



REMODELED 
FARMHOUSES 




THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE 



V, 



REMODELED 
FARMHOUSES 



BY 



MARY H. NORTHEND 

AUTHOR OF " COLONIAL HOMES AND THEIR FURNISHINGS 
"HISTORIC HOMES OF NEW ENGLAND," ETC. 



WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS 



NON-REFERl 




paVSLVAD * CT3S 



BOSTON 

LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY 
1915 



V 1 

ff 









Copyright, /p/5, 
BY LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY. 

All rights reserved 
Published, October, 1915 



/Vfl 




NorinoolJ }3rcss 
St up and electrotyped by J. S. Gushing Co., Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 

Printed by 
Louis E. CROSSCUP, BOSTON, U. S. A. 



I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 

TO MY FRIENDS IN MY NATIVE CITY 

TO WHOM I AM INDEBTED 

FOR MANY KINDNESSES 



PREFACE 

THERE is a certain fascination connected with the 
remodeling of a farmhouse. Its low, raftered interior, 
its weather-beaten exterior, never fail to appeal. Types 
vary with the period in which they were built, but all 
are of interest. 

In this collection, which has been pictured with great 
care, pains have been taken to show as many different 
types as possible, so that the student will be able to 
find numerous interesting details that can be incorpo- 
rated into his contemplated remodeling. In the study 
of this work I have grown to feel a deep reverence for 
the old homes of our forefathers, and have come to 
realize as never before the care and painstaking thor- 
oughness of the old master builders. 

I wish to thank the owners of these homes who 
have so kindly thrown open their doors to my inspec- 
tion, and who have told me the interesting stories 
connected with the houses. 

[vii] 



PREFACE 

Acknowledgment should be made to American Homes 
and Gardens for permission to use various articles of 
mine which they have previously published. 

In the contents of this book I trust there may be 
much of value to those who are contemplating the 
remodeling of a farmhouse and that the work will 
bring to them the same enjoyment that the study of 
the subject has brought to me. 

MARY H. NORTHEND. 
AUGUST, 1915. 



[viii] 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

PREFACE vii 

I. IRISTHORPE i 

II. LlMOVADY 15 

III. THE KITTREDGE HOUSE .... 28 

IV. THE CURTIS HOUSE 38 

V. GREEN MEADOWS 49 

VI. NAWN FARM . . . . . .61 

VII. BOULDER FARM 71 

VIII. THREE ACRES 84 

IX. THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE . . . ico 

X. THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE . . .no 

XI. THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE . 124 

XII. THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE . 136 

XIII. LITTLE ORCHARD 146 

XIV. WlLLOWDALE 155 

XV. THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE * . 166 

XVI. THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE . . . . 177 

XVII. THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE . . 187 

XVIII. THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE . .V 198 

XIX. THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE . . .208 

XX. THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE . . 220 

XXI. HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE . . .231 

XXII. THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE . . 243 

INDEX .255 

[ix] 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE . . . Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

IRISTHORPE, FRONT VIEW ...... 4 

The Entrance Porch ...... 5 

From the Garden 8 

The Entrance Porch, Another View .... 9 
The Dining Room, and the Living Room . . .12 
The Morning Room, and the Out-door Living Room . 1 3 

LIMOVADY, REAR VIEW FROM THE GARDEN . . .18 

Side View . . . . . . ..19 

Two Views of the Living Room . . . . 22 

The Dining Room, and the Lounge . . . ' . 23 

Two of the Chambers . . . . . . 26 

AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE . . . . .'27 

Side View ,. 30 

The Attic Chamber, and the Living Room . .31 

The Kitchen .36 

THE CURTIS HOUSE, THE ENTRANCE PORCH . , 37 

Before Remodeling, and Remodeled . . . .42 

The Hall and Unique Stairway . . ... .43 

Side View, and the Dining Room . . . .48 

xi 



V. 

*< 






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

GREEN MEADOWS, FRONT VIEW ..... 49 
An Old-fashioned Chamber, and the Living Room . . 56 
Two Views of the Den 57 

NAWN FARM, FRONT VIEW . . . . .64 

Rear View, and the Living Room . . . .65 

Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .68 

The China Closet in the Dining Room ... 69 

BOULDER FARM, FRONT VIEW 74 

The Front Doorway 75 

The Hall 78 

The Den, and the Parlor . . . . . .79 

Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .84 

THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD . . . .85 

Front View . ... . . . .90 

Side View . . . . . . 91 

A Corner of the Living Room ..... 94 

The Living Room, and the Dining Room . . . 95 

THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE ON CAPE COD . . .100 

Front View . . 101 

Two Views of the Living Room . . . .106 

The Attic Chambers . . . . . .107 

THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE . . . B .112 
The Hallway . , 113 

The Sun- Parlor or Out-door Nursery, and the Library . 1 18 
Two of the Chambers . . . . . .119 

The Nursery, and the Service Wing . . . 1 24 

xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

THE CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE, FRONT VIEW SHOWING THE 

OLD WELL . . . . . . .125 

Before Remodeling . . . . . . .130 

Across the Lawn . . . . . .131 

The Hall and Stairway, and the Living Room . . 134 

THE STUDIO OPPOSITE THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE . 135 

THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING . 138 
As Remodeled . . . . . . .139 

Two Views of the Living Room . . . .142 

The Dining Room, and the Music Room in the Studio 

Building . . . . . . . .143 

LITTLE ORCHARD. THE HOUSE FROM THE DRIVEWAY . .148 

The Angle of the Ell 149 

The Stairway . . . . . . . .152 

The Entrance Porch, and the Dining Room . . . 153 

WlLLOWDALE, BEFORE REMODELING, AND THE FRONT VlEW . 158 

The House from the Garden . . . . .159 
A Rear View, and the Living Room . . . .162 
Two of the Chambers . . . . . .163 

THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING, AND 

THE FRONT OF THE HOUSE . . ,..' ; | 166 

The House from the Terrace . . . ,, . 167 

The Pergola- Porch . . v .. 172 

The Hall, and the Alcove in the Living Room . . 173 
The Den, and the Dining Room . . . .176 

THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE . . . . 177 

The Stairway .186 

xiii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

QUILLCOTE, MRS. KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN'S SUMMER HOME . 187 

The Hall ... ... 192 

Two Views of the Living Room . . . . .193 

The Den, and the Dining Room . . . .196 

Two of the Chambers 197 

THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE, FRONT VIEW . , . 202 

Before Remodeling, and as Remodeled . . . .203 

The Pergola-Porch ..... . 206 

A First-floor Vista, and the Living Room . . . 207 

LONE TREE FARM . . . . . . . .212 

As Finally Remodeled, and the Sun- Parlor . . .213 

The Living Room, and a Corner in the Dining Room . 218 

The Sewing Room, and the Den . . . .219 

THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING . 224 

As Remodeled . '. . . . . .225 

The Living Room . . . . . . .228 

Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .229 

THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE . . . . .236 
The Living Room, and the Dining Room . . .237 
Two Noteworthy Chambers . . . . .242 

THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE .... 243 

End View ........ 248 

The Hall 249 

The Sun-Parlor, and the Living Room . . . .252 
The Den, and the Kitchen . . . . .253 



XIV 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 
CHAPTER I 

IRISTHORPE 

As you drove slowly along the country road, 
did you ever stop to consider the many possi- 
bilities for development that lie hidden in the old 
Colonial farmhouses found here and there ? Some 
are situated quite a distance from the main road, 
while others are placed practically on its boundary 
line. Many of the types are disguised by the 
unattractive additions that have been built to 
accommodate the growing needs of their occupants. 
Others, with sagging roofs and weather-beaten 
exteriors, stand mute witnesses of the days when 
our country was making history for itself. Some 
of these unattractive old dwellings in their early 
days sheltered the most ardent patriots of our land, 
men whose gallant deeds have made them famous, 
and who now lie forgotten. 

Fortunately for us, these old houses were not 
all built in the same century, but present a variety 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

of types which makes them all the more inter- 
esting both to architect and house owner. The 
age of the house is clearly defined in its design. 
Many of the earliest examples were framed in 
white pine, a wood whose lasting qualities have 
been plainly shown through their power to 
withstand the ravages of time. Others were con- 
structed of stone or brick and are equally inter- 
esting in character. From an architectural stand- 
point, most of these houses, no matter how 
dilapidated their condition, show good lines. To be 
sure, these are often hidden under poor surround- 
ings, for as the families grew larger and additions 
became necessary, the new parts were often badly 
placed. This makes it hard for an inexperienced 
eye to detect where the old house leaves off and 
the additions begin. It must be remembered that 
the early tillers of the soil took little interest in 
their homes save as* shelters for themselves and 
families, and chose for their buildings material 
that lay nearest at hand. All their ready money 
was expended in the building of large and spacious 
barns to house their cattle. 

There is a wealth of possibilities in the recon- 
struction of old farmhouses that are easily recog- 
nized by the experienced eye of the architect. 

[2] 



IRISTHORPE 

The study of lines which determine the size and 
design of the old building is most interesting and 
teaches a lesson in old-time architecture which is 
extremely fascinating. The adaptation of the 
house to new and different purposes, the creation 
of a picturesque result wholly unlike and yet 
following the lines of the original building, calls 
into play not only skilful designing but careful 
planning. 

Many of these old houses contain fine wood- 
work which is often hidden under layer upon 
layer of hideous wall-paper bought with an eye 
to price rather than good taste. The fireplaces 
are sometimes bricked up and plastered over to per- 
mit the use of a modern "air-tight" ; the wainscot 
and molding are buried under coats of unattractive 
paint and give little impression of their value 
until the original walls and woodwork lie bare. 
Some houses, more especially those situated near 
the coast and erected during the period of com- 
mercial prosperity, were built by ship carpenters 
and wood-carvers during dull seasons. In these, 
one comes occasionally upon a wonderful old 
fireplace or perchance a porch that shows artistic 
carving. Many of these old dwellings naturally 
show original treatment, and it is to these that 

[3] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the architects of to-day turn for details to be 
introduced into the modified Colonial house. 
They were built by men who were forced to use 
their brains, since they were unable to turn to 
books for ideas. 

As originally built, many of them stood with 
their backs to the road, their long, sloping roofs 
sweeping to the ground, their front doors opening 
on to extensive farm lands. Before the door 
usually stood the father and mother elm, their 
graceful branches seeming to hover protectingly 
over the dwellings. Many of the trees were there 
when the houses were built, while others have 
replaced their worthy sires and contribute a bit 
of landscape picturing that adds much to the 
attractiveness of the home. 

In these old houses, more especially those that 
are past complete restoration, the architect of to- 
day frequently finds choice old woodwork. Some- 
times it is a rare bit of pumpkin pine such as is 
seldom seen ; again it is a fine old wainscot, or a 
wonderful staircase that has been saved from the 
ravages of time. Often some of these details are 
introduced into another remodeled farmhouse to 
replace parts too far gone to be used. The grow- 
ing vogue of the country home has led to the 

[4] 




The Entrance Porch 
IRISTHORPE 



IRISTHORPE 

restoration of many of these old-time farmhouses 
and has saved many a valuable structure from 
falling into decay. Fortunately the appreciation 
of their possibilities came before it was too late 
to save them from destruction, although many 
that could have done service were allowed to go 
to ruin. There are, however, many fine examples 
still standing, and some of these have been altered 
to suit modern uses. Little wonder the old farm- 
house has come into its own, its attractiveness 
after remodeling making it available for sum- 
mer or all-the-y ear-round uses. To-day there is 
scarcely a farm or country resort that does not 
show one or more of these old-time buildings in 
their new dress. Some have interesting history 
connected with them and are associated with 
legends that have been handed down from genera- 
tion to generation. Often the house has been 
photographed to show both its former appearance 
and the results of the restoration. Some owners, 
however, have given little thought to the original 
structure, and it is left to the imagination to pic- 
ture the house as it used to be. 

It was six years ago, while hunting for a place 
to locate a summer home, that Doctor and Mrs. 
Homer Gage of Worcester, Massachusetts, dis- 

[si 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

covered at Shrewsbury a simple little farmhouse, 
showing no claim to architectural beauty. It was 
such an unattractive, plain, little building, that 
only the experienced eye could discover its fine 
lines. This house stood close by the dusty high- 
way ; the fence which formed the boundary line 
had fallen into decay, while the farm lands, run 
down through hard usage, showed no trace even 
of an old-fashioned garden, such as many of the 
housewives of the earlier day so loved to tend. 
The house was built before the Revolutionary 
War, being erected in 1760, and was considered 
in those days to be a good example of what a farm- 
house stood for. Surely it was an excellent type, 
considering the usual lines in the New England 
farmhouses of that day, this small, unpreten- 
tious dwelling, whose entrance door out of plumb 
and windows irregularly placed made a curious 
combination that was in reality fascinating and 
appealing. 

It was two stories in height, with an attic under 
the eaves, a hot little place during the summer 
months and cold in winter, but good for storage 
of furniture and unnecessary household belong- 
ings. The roof had a pitch at the back and sloped 
to meet the kitchen, which was only one story in 

[6] 



IRISTHORPE 

height. Two sturdy, six-foot chimneys had been 
built on one side of the house, as stoves were 
unknown in those days. The frame was of white 
pine, well seasoned, and the timber hand-hewn, 
with the mark of the adze plainly showing in the 
beams, for it was built when honest labor prevailed 
and was as stanch as in the days when the bush 
stuck in the chimney or ridge-pole showed that 
the carpenters' work was done. The farm build- 
ings were connected with the main house and com- 
prised a barn, hen-house, corn-crib, and byre, all 
huddled together in the most compact kind of 
way. It had not been occupied since Doctor 
Brown, the original owner, paid his last visit and 
left the house to its fate. The interior was not 
as dilapidated as in most old houses, being in 
tolerably good repair. And so, with little altera- 
tion, it was used as a dwelling house, while the 
new home which was being built near the center 
of the estate was erected. 

After the cellar was built and the foundation 
partly laid, the work on the new house was stopped. 
There was something about the old clapboarded 
farmhouse that appealed so strongly to the new 
occupants that they fell under its charm and de- 
cided not to supplant it by a modern home. But 

[7] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the house stood too near the road ; there was no 
privacy and no freedom from dust. It was of 
such solid construction, however, that its moving 
could be easily accomplished. So, slowly but 
surely, it slid down the hill and finally rested on 
the foundations which had been designed for the 
summer house. 

Under the direction of Mr. George Hunt Ingra- 
ham, the remodeling was begun. The old lines 
of the roof were left unaltered, and although more 
room was needed, dormers were left out in its 
reconstruction. Nothing, the new owners felt, 
could so destroy the lines of the house as to break 
them with intrusions such as this. The long, 
unbroken skyline is one of its greatest charms, and 
even the long slope at one side, reaching down and 
over the one-story kitchen ell, has been carefully 
retained and adds not a little to the harmonious 
effect of the whole structure. At the front was 
added a small porch showing Colonial treatment, in 
the center of which hang graceful vases filled with 
iris. The same latticed effect was carried out 
across the front of the house in the space between 
the windows of the first and second stories. On 
either side of the main dwelling, outdoor living- 
rooms were secured by the introduction of screened 

[8] 




c 
<u 



c ^ 
I ^ 





The Entrance Porch. Another View 
IRISTHORPE 



IRISTHORPE 

piazzas, the roofs of which were painted with 
water-proof paint. One of these living-rooms opens 
on to a water-garden with its arches of roses at 
one side of the house. It is fitted up with willow 
furniture, in the coverings of which is introduced 
the prevailing flower, the iris, which is also shown 
in the table cover and the shape of the vase filled 
with the same flowers. The opposite porch is 
also fitted up as a living-room and overlooks 
the home garden. The exterior of the house is 
painted white with conventional green blinds, 
the chimneys following the same treatment, while 
the windows remain unchanged. The massive 
stone fireplaces were not taken out, although 
the old kitchen chimney had to be altered slightly 
in order to meet present needs. The house to-day 
overlooks extensive grounds and is embowered 
in a wealth of rambler roses and iris. It resembles 
the old house in its lines but shows in its remodeled 
form a most wonderful effect and reveals what 
beautiful results can be obtained by correct 
restoration. 

The house is named "Iristhorpe," the name 
being chosen by the mistress of the house, who 
since her childhood has taken great interest in 
the iris because of a fairy tale told her by her 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

grandmother, in which the flower was supposed to 
be the home of the fairies. 

With modern methods of living, it would have 
been an impossibility to retain the old house in 
its entirety. More room was needed, and a 
service department was an absolute necessity, 
but in its enlargement such careful attention was 
paid to carrying out the lines of the original type 
that to-day it is almost an impossibility to find 
where the old house leaves off, and the new one 
commences. In the old structure, as it stood 
facing the main road, there were three rooms in a 
row on the first floor, with the kitchen ell attached 
at the rear, and the upper part of the house cut 
up into small rooms. In remodeling, these rooms 
were changed over into morning-room, living- 
room, and library, and occupy the entire front of 
the house, just as they did in the original building. 
They are connected with doors so carefully placed 
in line that they give one the impression of greater 
space than is really found at Iristhorpe. At the 
rear, the old kitchen was converted into a most 
attractive hallway and stairway, with closets 
and lavatory located at the farther side. 

The dining-room, which is at the rear of the 
living-room, has been added and conforms in 

[10] 



IRISTHORPE 

every respect to the original design of the old 
house. Back of this are the service rooms, which 
are admirably planned and equipped with butler's 
pantry, servants' dining-room, kitchen pantry, rear 
hall, and stairway, together with a kitchen. In 
the remodeling, the second story was divided into 
four servants' bedrooms, a bathroom, and a large 
sewing-room at the rear. An interesting feature 
is that this department has no connection on the 
second floor with any other room in the house. 

The porch door opens directly into the living- 
room, which has never been changed from its 
original place in the old house. Its central 
feature is the old fireplace, which has been 
opened at the opposite side into the new 
dining-room. This was originally the old kitchen 
chimney and contained the brick oven. It has 
been bricked in for modern use, and here, as 
throughout the house, the iris motive prevails. 
It is shown in the graceful andirons, in the 
coverings of the Sheraton wing chair, in the sofa 
pillows, and even in the lamp-shade. This room 
contains fine woodwork, which is, in fact, a notice- 
able feature of every part of the house, and the 
Colonial idea has been carefully carried out in 
all the furniture used. 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

The library opens out from the living-room at 
the right, and from that one passes to the outdoor 
living-room. On the opposite side of the living- 
room is the den or morning-room, with glass doors 
which open on to the porch. Here again the iris 
is always the motive of decoration. In this room 
particularly the old paneling has been retained, 
as have the old strap hinges and latches, which, 
when missing, have been replaced by others of 
like design. This room was originally the doc- 
tor's office, and in the cupboard was found, at the 
purchase of the house, some of his old stock. 

One of the most interesting rooms is the dining- 
room, which contains an old brick oven and 
paneling so exactly corresponding to the character 
of the original that at first glance it is impossible to 
differentiate between them, either in age or work- 
manship. The window sashes, with their small, 
well-shaped panes, give to the room an appropriate 
scale, and the old iron and brass hinges and latches 
lend an effective tone. The iris, charming in 
nature and no less decorative in its convention- 
alized form, appears here and there in the carved 
woodwork and always gives a delicate twist to 
the Colonial design it embellishes. The beamed 
ceiling carries out the old-time idea, while won- 

[12] 




The Dining Room 




The Living Room 
IRISTHORPE 




The Morning Room 




The Out-door Living Room 
IRISTHORPE 



IRISTHORPE 

derful Japanese panels have been inserted in the 
finish over the fireplace, and huge iron andirons 
show an exact reproduction of the fleur-de-lis. 
This flower is found also in the cushions of the 
Chippendale chairs, the decoration of the table, 
the china, and in a beautiful Japanese screen of 
most graceful design that hides the service entrance 
into this room. 

The white woodwork is a noticeable feature of 
the interior, where harmony has been so carefully 
maintained that on entering one feels as if he were 
in a really old house, rather than one restored. 
It should be noted that in the architectural treat- 
ment, especial consideration has been given to 
lighting and air; the windows have been distrib- 
uted so that the light is concentrated, giving the 
rooms an effect of cheerfulness that could not be 
obtained otherwise. Even the hanging of the 
curtains, which are of the Colonial type, adds to 
the charm of the house. 

The bedrooms, on the second floor, of which 
there are four, show the same low stud that is 
characteristic of the lower floor. They are small 
but most conveniently fitted up, even to the con- 
version of a small closet, which the architect had 
considered impractical for use, into an extra 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

bathroom. Every bit of available space has been 
made usable. 

An unusual feature is the guest house, which 
has been created in the second story of the large 
stable which stands at one side of the estate. 
This is especially useful for week-end parties. 
The loft has been converted into a suite of bed- 
rooms, pool-rooms, and a screened veranda that 
can be used for sleeping accommodations. 

Iristhorpe might be called a conventional farm- 
house, one of the type met with on almost every 
country road. It has no exterior adornment 
of any kind, but is a fine example of how a pic- 
turesque building can be evolved from an unat- 
tractive one, and is probably one of the best 
examples of remodeling that can be found. The 
house is typical of the best American architecture, 
and credit should be given the pioneer who first 
laid the foundation of the old farmhouse. As 
Iristhorpe now stands, its graceful lines cannot 
be improved upon, and clever as the alterations 
undoubtedly are, the great fascination that grips 
us as we view the house arises from the fact that 
it is a part of the early architecture, when hewn 
beams were first primed together, and when dwell- 
ings were erected that would endure for centuries. 

[14] 



CHAPTER II 

LIMOVADY 

FIRST the electric car and now the automobile 
have solved the problem of accessibility which 
until recently confronted those who would have 
returned to the old homestead even sooner, had 
it been nearer the town. But to-day the house 
must be far away indeed if it cannot be easily 
reached from the more active centers, and prob- 
ably this fact more than any other has opened up 
for the enjoyment of the younger generations the 
natural charm of the countryside endeared to our 
forefathers. In the roomy, old-fashioned farm- 
houses of New England, surrounded by stately 
trees and overlooking acres upon acres of rolling 
pasture and meadow land, unlimited opportuni- 
ties are offered for the development of the country 
home. 

In remodeling these houses of the early builders, 
any radical departure from the original scheme is 
seldom necessary. Rather should the lines and 
motives be sacredly preserved to accentuate their 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

old-time charm, and modern improvements intro- 
duced unobtrusively and with such care that the 
final result is indeed a restoration and not an 
alteration. The mellowing passage of time has 
dealt gently with many of our old homes, and his- 
tory and romance have woven about them an 
added fascination for every generation to enjoy. 
When the work of restoration is commenced, the 
problem of retaining this charm is often a difficult 
one. In some instances it would seem as if noth- 
ing short of pure inspiration had guided the hands 
of the remodelers of many of the quaint and irregu- 
lar old houses that stand by the side of the road. 
The old house is nearly always in harmony with 
its surroundings ; if it did not seem a part of the 
landscape when it was built, it has at least had 
time to grow into it through the years, and the 
problem of all remodeling is to preserve in the 
completed structure the atmosphere that will 
make it appear to have always belonged where it 
stands. While the first thought of our forefathers 
was to provide an adequate home, they undoubt- 
edly possessed a peculiar instinct in the choice of 
a picturesque location. By selecting the site best 
adapted to their needs, the house seemed literally 
to grow out of the land, and herein lies the secret 

[16] 



LIMOVADY 

of more than half the allurement of the old-fash- 
ioned structures. The intimacy between house 
and grounds seems as strong as were the family 
ties of those hardy pioneers who laid the founda- 
tions of American civilization. 

More practical considerations in regard to the 
environment than picturesqueness confront the 
house owner, however, and one of the most impor- 
tant is that of water supply and drainage. These 
must necessarily be kept far apart. A gentle 
incline is the best location for a dwelling, so that 
the one may come to the house from higher ground 
above, and the other be carried off below. A 
hollow is bad, because the water will not readily 
flow away from it ; it is always damp and hot, as 
it is shut in from the breezes. On too steep a hill- 
side, heavy rains will work havoc with lawns, 
walks, and flower beds. 

The slope of the land should be considered in 
reference to the prevailing winds. The house 
should be placed so that the cool breezes of summer 
blow upon the living-room side and not upon the 
kitchen, or all the heat and odors from cooking 
will fill the rooms, and they will always be hot and 
stuffy. The attractiveness of the immediate out- 
look should be noted, and it is well to ascertain if 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

there are any objectionable features which cannot 
be removed or which are likely to arise within 
immediate prospect. The character and prox- 
imity of the neighbors will play a large part in the 
enjoyment of a summer home. If the house is 
not set well back on the property, it should at least 
be screened with full-grown trees and shrubbery 
to obtain the seclusion desired. Old trees add 
greatly not only to the attractiveness of a place 
but to its actual value and comfort, for it takes a 
long time to grow new trees that will provide 
adequate shade from the heat of summer suns. 

There is an illustration of a thus happily sit- 
uated farmhouse at Georgetown, about thirty 
miles from Boston, known as the Jewett house, 
which was built in 1711. It is typical of an old 
Dutch lean-to and has a great central chimney 
twelve feet square, with four flues. Snuggled 
down in the midst of rolling grass land, it made 
an attractive picture in its surroundings of old 
elms. It stood far back from the road and was 
approached by a long lane that wound among 
splendid trees to the front of the house. Like 
many dwellings of this period, its back was toward 
the main road, and the front door opened upon 
a wide expanse of shady meadows which in the 

[18] 




03 

O 




C/3 



LIMOVADY 

summer were bright with many-colored wild 
flowers. Between the house and the road there 
was a wide stretch of green grass which has been 
transformed into an old-fashioned flower garden, 
planted about a small, cement-lined pool and water 
garden. 

This house was discovered several years ago by 
a young Southerner who had come north from her 
sunny home in Kentucky to find a summer abode 
for her brother and herself. The house as it stood 
was in a very dilapidated condition, and only an 
artist would have realized its possibilities. But 
about it was a warmth of atmosphere that ap- 
pealed to the enthusiastic Southerner. Not the 
least of its attractions were the elms that cast 
their protecting shadows not only over the long 
avenue which led to the house but over the dwell- 
ing itself; many of them were patriarchs of the 
primeval forests when their younger companions 
were yet in seed; others were set out later, to 
add their charm to the forsaken home. 

It was purchased in 1906, and the work of 
restoration was immediately commenced. The 
outside was weather-beaten and guiltless of paint. 
The roof sagged, and the great stone chimney 
needed repair. It was propped up and made 

[19] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

thoroughly safe, and the old roof was entirely 
rebuilt, but the original lines were closely fol- 
lowed. Viewing the house as it stands to-day, 
one realizes what attractive apartments can be 
evolved from ugly interiors, and what interesting 
results ingenuity and good judgment can bring 
about. 

The interior showed coat after coat of vivid 
tint and layer after layer of atrociously colored 
wall-paper. The rooms, originally large and 
square, had been divided and partitioned off to 
meet the needs of growing families; many of 
them were small and hopelessly unattractive. 
But there were latent possibilities. 

When the house was first purchased, the owner 
went over the inside herself to discover the origi- 
nal lines. As in many houses of the kind, it was 
easy to restore the size of the room by following 
beams and knocking out partitions. It must 
be remembered that the usual plan in houses of 
that period was to construct a large, square room 
in the center with small rooms opening off from 
it which were used as chambers. 

The work of decorating, and, as far as possible, 
the remodeling itself, was done by Mrs. William 
Otis Kimball and her brother. Along the front of 

[20] 



LIMOVADY 

the house a screened, outdoor living-room has been 
added. The original building consisted of four 
rooms on the first floor. The front door opened 
into a small hall, to the right of which was the 
great living-room, and to the left the dining- 
room. Back of the former was a guest room, 
and back of the latter the old kitchen. 

In the living-room, the flooring, which was 
composed of boards often two feet wide, was in 
such good condition that it was left intact, treated 
to a black walnut stain, and shellacked. The 
height of the ceiling was but seven feet; so the 
heavy beams of swamp oak were boxed in and 
painted white, and the space between white- 
washed. The walls, which were covered with 
ten tiers of paper, each one uglier than the last, 
were cleared to the boarding. The last one was 
found to be a wonderfully fine landscape paper, 
which showed that an early owner of the house 
must have been a person of means, who probably 
had it brought over in one of the merchant-ships 
during the time of commercial prosperity, when 
Newburyport had a lively trade with foreign 
lands. The walls were treated with a water 
paint colored a creamy pumpkin tint that makes 
the room seem always well lighted. It is a most 

[21] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

inexpensive finish, such as is used by scene painters 
in a theater, and can be put on with an ordinary 
whitewash brush. The wainscot was stained dark 
brown to harmonize with the floors. Around the 
top of the room the owner painted a frieze of 
conventionalized pomegranates, which follow the 
color scheme of the woodwork and wall. The old 
fireplace, which had been closed up, was opened, 
and the over-mantel enriched with a splendidly 
decorative painting by the artist herself, repre- 
senting a Normandy boar hunt about 1330. 

After it was remodeled, the room measured 
twenty-four by twenty-six feet, the original size 
when the house was first built. It is now used as 
a living-room and library. Inexpensive shelves, 
made of boards stained to match the wainscot, 
are fastened along the walls. In places there is 
a single shelf; sometimes two are placed about 
twelve inches apart, and they are used for books, 
pictures, and ornaments. The windows are cur- 
tained with an appropriate simplicity that is 
unusually attractive. Unbleached cotton is used 
for the over-curtains and decorated with a border 
of richly colored cretonne, corresponding in color 
and conventionality of design to the painted 
frieze on the walls. 

[22] 





Two Views of the Living Room 
LIMOVADY 




The Dining Room 




The Lounge 

LlMOVADY 



L1MOVADY 

The hallway is five feet in width and has been 
kept in the original boards. They are stained 
in tones of soft brown which harmonize splendidly 
with the varying color schemes of the rooms that 
open on either side. Opposite the entrance door 
is a narrow, winding staircase whose white steps 
and balustrade contrast sharply with the dark 
woodwork and hand-rail. Half way up is the old 
nightcap closet from which, in the early days, 
our forefathers took their nightly toddy. Under- 
neath the stairs is a secret closet so carefully hid- 
den in the panels that only those familiar with it 
can find it. This was known in Colonial days as 
the "priest hole," and it was here, so the legend 
runs, that French refugees were secreted during 
the French and Indian wars. 

The dining-room opens oil the hallway at the 
left. It is a long, narrow room with a fireplace 
at one side of the end nearest the hall. The 
woodwork has been finished in a dark stain, and 
the old corner cupboard has been kept intact. 
The fireplace wall is paneled in swamp pine, and 
over the mantel there is a secret panel cupboard. 
The lower part of the walls is covered with dark 
green burlap, and above is a decorative paper in 
boldly striking colors. There is a long, refectory 

[23] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

dining-table in this room, made of stout oak 
boards, and the other furniture has a monastic 
simplicity which is entirely in keeping with the 
character of the room. 

The small room at the rear of the living-room 
is used as a guest chamber and is known as the 
missionary room. Here the walls are tinted a 
soft moss green, and ornamented at the top by a 
black and white frieze that pictures the different 
stages of a missionary's life. He is shown from the 
time of his arrival on the lonely island to his chase 
and capture by a band of cannibals, and finally 
being roasted amidst scenes of hilarity as they 
turn his fat form on the spit. 

The studio was originally the kitchen and opens 
out of this room. The woodwork is of the same 
dark brown tint used through all the lower story, 
and the walls are hung with natural colored bur- 
lap. The principal features of the room are its 
fireplace and quaint Dutch oven which were 
built into the center of the twelve-foot chimney 
when the house was erected. From the pothook 
on the crane hangs an old Colonial kettle. Of 
almost equal interest are the small-paned windows 
which are closed by sliding inside panels. 

The present kitchen has been added at the rear. 

[24] 



LIMOVADY 

It has white walls decorated with a frieze in which 
lobsters disport themselves in different attitudes. 

A small closet at one side of the passage that 
leads into the kitchen has been utilized for a bath- 
room. It is finished in white with a dado of tiles 
painted with turtles. 

When the house was first purchased, there was 
an old barn on the property a short distance 
away. This was moved up and connected with 
the house. It opens from the dining-room and 
has been converted into a lounge room, with 
servants' quarters at the rear. This room is one 
of the most interesting in the house. It is fin- 
ished in stained pine, and the old rafters and wood- 
work have been left as they originally were. The 
spaces between the heavy beams of the ceiling 
are white, the beams being black with a narrow 
band of peacock blue above. 

The originality used in finishing the house is evi- 
denced nowhere better than in the chambers, on the 
second floor. Each one has been decorated with a 
different flower, and they are known as the holly- 
hock, the sweet pea, the wistaria, and the morning- 
glory room. A frieze of the particular flower has 
been painted around, and the canopies and bed cov- 
erings show the same design and colors in cretonne. 

[25] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

A small room in the barn wing, which was not 
large enough to be converted into a chamber as it 
stood, has been utilized for this purpose by open- 
ing up a large, connecting closet into an alcove 
to hold the bed. It is so arranged that at night 
the bed can be pulled out into the center of the 
room, and in the daytime hidden behind curtains 
drawn across the alcove. 

There are quaint old four-posters in all of the 
bedrooms, and old-fashioned and simple fur- 
niture is used throughout the house. Some of it 
is home-made, and in many of the rooms are 
bookcases constructed from packing-boxes, and 
hung across with curtains of the cretonne used 
elsewhere in the room. 

In altering many old houses for modern occu- 
pancy, there has been a greater expenditure than 
would have been required to build an entirely 
new structure. But in this instance the charm 
of the old home has been retained with a con- 
siderably smaller outlay than would have been 
necessary to erect another of equal size and 
facilities. 

There is an undeniable satisfaction in realizing 
that all has been gotten out of a venture of this 
kind that was possible, and that no offense has 

[26] 





Two of the Chambers 
LIMOVADY 




o 

Q 
O 

O 

U4 



u 



LIMOVADY 

been committed against the spirit of the old house. 
Every one who has attempted remodeling obtains 
different results from those first planned, for as 
the work proceeds, new possibilities and new limi- 
tations constantly appear, till the completed build- 
ing has an individuality unrealized in the be- 
ginning. 

In Limovady, as this little country place is 
named, we find a good example of what can be 
done to make an old house not only a livable but 
a delightful home, and it is a success such as this 
that inspires other home seekers to remodel, 
according to their own ideas. For no two people 
will be likely to conceive the reconstruction of a 
home in just the same way, and it is this stamp of 
individuality that lends to the remodeled house a 
large part of its charm. 



27 



CHAPTER III 

THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

HAVE you ever noticed the fishermen's little 
cottages that stand along the seacoast wherever 
modern summer resorts have not displaced them ? 
From a modern architectural point of view, they 
would at first seem quite insignificant, and yet, 
hidden away beneath the rough exteriors, there 
are often interesting lines and good proportions. 
The humble fishermen who dwelt there cared little 
for external appearance, but they built their cot- 
tages strong and solid and, though unpretentious, 
they were comfortable. 

These little old houses, seemingly commonplace 
though they may be, hold much more interest for 
the prospective house owner and the architect 
than do the more elaborate ones of later periods. 
For wherever men have utilized what skill and in- 
telligence they have to satisfy definite needs in 
the simplest, most straightforward way, they have 
achieved something of lasting worth. 

The ages of these old seacoast houses vary just 

[28] 



THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

as do those farther inland. Some were built long 
before the Revolution and others at a much more 
recent date. Some have fallen into hopeless de- 
cay, while others are still stanch and habitable. 
The possible purchaser should make a careful 
examination both inside and out before he decides 
to remodel. Sometimes, from a superficial sur- 
vey, an old house may appear sturdy enough to 
warrant renovation, but a closer investigation 
will prove that this would be an expensive busi- 
ness. For the old timbers often hold together 
firmly because they have all settled together as 
a unit; if any one is disturbed, the rest may be 
greatly weakened or even threaten to fall apart, 
like the proverbial house of cards. 

The first indication of dangerous weakness is 
a sagging roof. If the lines are even a little con- 
cave, it is a bad sign, for the roof would not have 
settled had the walls held absolutely true. Be- 
cause of pressure against them, they have been 
forced apart and perhaps are on the point of 
tumbling down altogether. If the roof passes 
its test well, then examine the line of the walls 
and be sure they are absolutely vertical and have 
neither spread nor fallen inward. 

Next study the condition of the timbers. The 

[29] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

sill is the most important one. If it is badly 
decayed, all the other members resting upon it 
will have been thereby weakened and the whole 
structure impaired. The upright timbers and 
the studs will all have settled, and to straighten 
them will mean practically the rebuilding of the 
house. The floors and the roof which rest upon 
them will be endangered. Sometimes the ends 
of the uprights have rotted, and the slightest new 
work about them will result in their crumbling 
and undermining the beams and rafters they 
support. It is often necessary to use a sharp 
iron or a long knife and pry underneath the 
coverings on both the exterior and the interior 
to determine their condition. A little attention 
given to these points will determine whether it is 
worth while to attempt remodeling, or whether 
the expense involved would be out of all propor- 
tion to the result. 

Scarcely less vital is the condition of the cellar. 
Is there dampness, caused by lack of ventilation, 
by bad walls, or by some inherent moisture ? 
Some of these old houses have a well in the cellar ; 
this should be drained off and filled up. But if 
there is an actual spring of water, as not infre- 
quently occurs, either move the house or abandon 

[30] 




Q 
O 

U 



IX 

CJ 

Q 

O 




The Attic Chamber 




The Living Room 
AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE 



THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

it. Bad walls can be cemented and waterproofed. 
If the trouble comes from lack of light and air, it 
may be possible to cut larger window openings. 
Most old houses were set too low, however, and 
it is frequently an advantage to raise them. This 
requires sound underpinning, or the expense will 
be great. 

While considering the subject of dampness, it 
is well to examine the roof and see how much it 
leaks under the moss-grown shingles. If it is an 
old house that is in tolerably good repair at the 
present time, it may be that under some previous 
owner the roof fell into decay, and rains soaked 
through. Look for signs of this, for it will mean 
weakness in timbers and plaster that must be 
guarded against. Examine the boards of the 
roof to see if they are strong enough to permit the 
laying of new shingles. 

The chimney is another important matter to 
investigate. In old houses which have not been 
used for some time, the bricks often deteriorate 
and become so soft that they crumble at the touch. 
This would necessitate the not inconsiderable 
expense of rebuilding the whole chimney, unless it 
is so large that a second smaller one may be in- 
serted within the old. With the huge fireplaces 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

of other days, whose yawning mouths were often 
capable of holding a ten-foot log, a metal flue is 
frequently used in the remodeling. It is sur- 
rounded on the outside, between itself and the 
old chimney, with concrete, which renders it en- 
tirely safe from danger of fire. 

A glance should be given also, in this inspection, 
at the condition of the floors. If they are not 
level, it indicates defects in the timbers under- 
neath. The boards themselves are often so rough 
and laid with such large cracks that it will be 
necessary to lay new floors. Notice, too, the con- 
dition of doors and windows; whether they are 
straight and true enough to be used again, or if 
others will have to replace them. Tap the plaster 
here and there to see where it is loose and to what 
extent it must be renewed. 

These are the tests that indicate whether the 
old house is worth buying and what will be the 
essential expense to make it habitable. Sometimes 
one or another defect is so severe as to make the 
venture foolish ; again it can be remedied by 
resort to strenuous methods. Not infrequently 
the drawbacks of a bad cellar and a poor location 
are at once overcome by removing the house alto- 
gether to a new site. This is practicable when 

[32] 



THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

the building is sound in structure and an inexpen- 
sive operation if it is small. 

That was the proceeding which Miss Mabel 
L. Kittredge undertook with an old fisherman's 
cottage that had stood for many years on the 
shores of Cape Cod. It was a simple little build- 
ing, dilapidated and weather-beaten, and quite 
unsuggestive of a summer home. But its very 
quaintness and diminutive size attracted her 
attention, and she determined to investigate it. 
The owner was willing to part with it, just as it 
stood, for eighty-five dollars, not including the 
land. 

The location was not desirable, and it was de- 
cided to "fleck" the house, as is the colloquial 
term on the Cape for preparing a building to be 
moved. It was taken apart and floated across 
the water to its new foundations in South Yar- 
mouth. Here it was "unflecked" and set up 
facing the harbor and the cool breezes from the 
ocean. 

The original building, erected in the early part 
of the nineteenth century, was a small, shingled 
structure, thirty by twenty feet, with a straight 
gable roof rising from the low stud of the first 
story. Its proportions were not at all unpleas- 

[331 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ing, and the placing of the several small-paned 
windows was particularly agreeable. There was 
a kitchen shed attached to the rear. 

When it was set in position in the new location, 
additional windows were cut, a small porch 
built at the front entrance, and a second shed 
attached at right angles to the kitchen wing. In 
the second story, a broad flat-roofed dormer with 
three windows increased the interior space, with- 
out seriously altering the straight lines of the roof. 
The effort to retain the original simplicity of line 
is also evident in the porch roof, which follows 
closely the wide angle of the gable ends of the 
house. 

The original interior was cut up into a number 
of small rooms, the partitions of which were re- 
moved, with the exception of those dividing off 
a bedroom at the rear. This left one good-sized 
apartment, which was fitted up for living and 
dining-room combined and made a most delight- 
ful place. The stairs were built at the left, along 
the rear wall. A group of three windows was cut 
here to give extra light and air, and the manner 
in which they have been handled is interesting. 
On account of the position of a heavy supporting 
beam, it was impossible to make these new win- 

[34] 



THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

dows the height of the original ones. The effect 
of this was ameliorated by placing a shelf directly 
above the group of three and extending it across 
the wall to meet the old window. A number of 
interesting pieces of china placed on the shelf give 
it a character and weight which thus carries the 
eye along from one opening to the other without 
any consciousness of the break in height. This 
is but one of those ingenious methods by which 
remodeling is made successful. 

The large, old-fashioned fireplace is the center 
of interest in this room. At the right of it is a 
china closet with mullioned glass door, and on the 
left two narrower closets are found in the panel- 
ing. A new hardwood floor had to be laid, as the 
original one was in bad condition. The wainscot 
and woodwork throughout the house was un- 
usually good for such a small and unpretentious 
structure. After the former layers of paint had 
been removed and the wood thoroughly cleaned, it 
was finished in white. The walls, scraped down 
to the original plaster, were painted in a soft green 
flat-coat that was delightfully fresh and cool. 

Back of this large room was a small hallway 
leading into the ell at the back. At the left, space 
was taken for a bathroom. 

[35] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

The kitchen was kept practically the same as 
in the old house. The rough stud and rafters were 
stained a dark brown, and the boards of the roof 
whitewashed. The walls were plastered to the 
height of the stud. A modern stove was attached 
to the old chimney flue on the outside of the build- 
ing. The exposed uprights provided an oppor- 
tunity for convenient shelves to be built for the 
various kitchen appliances. 

Up-stairs the entire floor was thrown into one 
room, instead of making several small, stuffy, 
sleeping apartments. The dormer which was cut 
in the front added not only to the light, air, and 
space of the room, but gave an opportunity for 
a most attractive window-seat to be built beneath 
the broad windows. The old, wide boards of the 
floor were in good condition and kept intact. 
The walls were plastered to the ridge, exposing 
the heavy tie-beams. Along the walls under 
the eaves, sets of drawers were built into the wood- 
work, thus obviating the necessity of having 
chiffoniers or chests of drawers to consume al- 
ready limited space. The rough bricks of the 
chimney, which breaks slantingly through the 
floor near the center of the room, are not con- 
cealed. Instead, they form a rather decorative 

[36] 




AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE THE KITCHEN 




The Entrance Porch 
THE CURTIS HOUSE 



THE KITTREDGE HOUSE 

feature in the little apartment, and about the four 
sides of the flue shelves are built which serve as 
a dressing-table and a desk. 

The furnishings of the whole house are delight- 
fully simple and suggestive of the quaint Colonial 
period when it was built. Tables and chairs, 
pictures, mirrors, and china are interesting heir- 
looms that have been handed down in the family 
of the owner and preserve the spirit of the little 
cottage as admirably as do the various alterations 
which have made it so modern and habitable. 



[37] 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CURTIS HOUSE 

THE great charm of Colonial farmhouses lies 
in the simplicity of their appearance. Many 
dilapidated, weather-beaten old buildings, long 
neglected by an indifferent community, are really 
little masterpieces of harmonious line and good 
proportion. 

The style of the roof tells much about the age 
of the building to the initiated, and its line is easily 
the most important factor in the appearance of 
the house. The pitched roof is one of the oldest 
types and was used long before our country was 
discovered. This roof slopes away from the ridge- 
pole on both sides, thus forming a triangular area, 
the angle at each end of which is called a gable. 
In the early days, the pitch was built very steep 
to accommodate the thatching with which the 
roof was covered. As shingles came into use, the 
slope gradually flattened, and the age can be 
roughly judged by its angle. 

The gambrel roof appeared before the eighteenth 

[38] 



THE CURTIS HOUSE 

century and was commonly used in New England 
farmhouses. Each side of this is made up of two 
distinct pitches, which have no rule to govern 
their relationship. A somewhat later develop- 
ment was the hipped roof, in which the gabled 
ends were flattened, making four flat sides slop- 
ing from the ridge-pole. This was used when 
no attic chamber was needed. In the more pre- 
tentious Georgian houses, the top was flattened, 
and a wooden balustrade put around it. These 
roofs are generally shingled and practically never 
painted ; the soft gray color they attain in weather- 
ing is sometimes imitated in stain on new shingles. 
The addition of a wing or ell brought up a new 
problem in roofing, and it is this point that de- 
mands most serious attention from the remodeler. 
The old builders have not always been successful 
in preserving the unity of the roof line that is so- 
essential to pleasing design. Whenever ,it is pos- 
sible, the new roof should be made a part of the 
old, and the lines of one should run into those of 
the other. The pitch of the two should be prac- 
tically the same. The same type of roof must 
be used over all parts of the building, although 
it is occasionally permissible to have a pitched 
roof on an ell when the main roof is a gambrel. 

[39] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Where a veranda is added, its roof line must be 
carefully studied and made to seem an original 
part of the building, not something stuck on as an 
afterthought. This problem of keeping the lines 
of the different roofs in harmony is a vital one, 
and nowhere is there greater demand for ingenuity 
and thoughtful treatment. 

The question of dormers is also important. 
When it is desired to have a second-story porch 
or sleeping-room, the dormer often supplies the 
solution of this difficult problem. The earliest 
ones were merely a flattening of the pitch of the 
roof, and this is the type that should be used when 
it is necessary to add a dormer to the older farm- 
houses. As the Georgian details were developed, 
the gable-roofed dormer was used with the cornice 
moldings of porches and door frames. These 
dormers were high, with a single window often 
having a semicircular head. They were usually 
combined in groups of three and connected with 
each other by a balustrade. 

The exterior walls of the first houses were made 
of heavy boards laid vertically on the framework, 
without studding. Before long, the wood was 
laid horizontally, each board overlapping the one 
below it. This clapboarding and siding was 

[40] 



THE CURTIS HOUSE 

used without interruption through all the various 
changes in other details. Much later, the shingle 
was adopted for the sides of the house as well as 
for the roof. A larger shingle, however, was used 
on the walls, with a wide exposure of surface. 
These were made of pine or cypress. 

Although the walls of most old houses follow 
a straight line from one story to the next, there 
was a type, copied by the colonists from the 
buildings of the mother country and used some- 
what freely before the Georgian era, in which the 
second story extended beyond the first. This 
overhang was generally used only on the front 
and back and not on all four sides, as in the Euro- 
pean counterparts. The girders and cross beams 
were framed into the second-story posts, which 
frequently ended in an ornamental knob or drop, 
as it was called. The gables, too, occasionally 
had a slight overhang. In altering a pre-Georgian 
house, it is therefore permissible to make use of 
this overhang feature, and it may solve some other- 
wise knotty problems of required extra space. 

A house which shows unusually clever handling 
of these points is situated in the little village of 
Charles River, not so many miles outside of Bos- 
ton. Within the last few years, this locality has 

[41] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

been opened up, and many modern homes have 
been built and farmhouses remodeled. They are 
situated along charming woodland roads and 
seem to nestle in their picturesque surroundings. 
This particular one stands on the road from 
Boston to Dover, invitingly shaded by graceful 
elms that have watched unnumbered generations 
pass. It suggests to passers-by a typical, seven- 
teenth century farmhouse, ingeniously remodeled, 
through the plans of the late Philip B. Howard 
and F. M. Wakefield, architects of Boston, into 
a twentieth-century summer home. This old 
farmhouse was built in 1647 and was of the rectan- 
gular type, built about a central chimney, with 
four rooms and a hall on the lower floor. When 
Mr. Frederick H. Curtis selected it for his home, 
it had already been materially altered from the 
original simple structure by various succeeding 
tenants. And many of these had not added to 
its charms. The exterior was most uninviting 
in a vicious shade of red paint with white trim. 
In front was a small lattice porch entirely out of 
keeping with the architecture of the house. But 
in spite of all these unattractive features, there 
was an insistent appeal about the old place that 
made it seem worth venturing to restore. 

[42] 




Before Remodeling 




Remodeled 
THE CURTIS HOUSE 




The Hall and Unique Stairway 
THE CURTIS HOUSE 



THE CURTIS HOUSE 

The first problem which presented itself was 
that of interior space. The difficulty lay in en- 
larging this space in such a way as to provide 
the needed room and at the same time maintain the 
harmony of the exterior lines. The original four 
rooms had been added to from time to time by 
former owners by means of the customary ells at 
the rear. The house was two and a half stories 
high, with a straight, pitched roof starting from 
the top of the second story. In the rear there was 
a two-story ell and a one-story addition behind 
that, with an outside chimney. Each of these 
was increased by one room, so that space for 
a laundry was added in the lower floor and for 
servants' quarters in the second. The chimney 
was kept on the outside above the laundry roof 
and built up to the required height. This second- 
story extension overhangs the old kitchen wall 
by about eighteen inches on one side and on the 
other runs into an entirely new wing, whose roof 
line joins without a break to that of the old ell. 
The roof of the main building has been extended 
in the rear, following its straight line to the top 
of the first story, as was frequently done in old 
houses. This brought the lines of the main build- 
ing and the rear ells into greater harmony and 

[43] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

provided space for an outdoor living-room on the 
first floor. A flat-roofed dormer was thrown out 
above this on the second floor and turned into a 
sleeping-porch. The lines of the several roofs have 
thus been kept remarkably simple, considering the 
great amount of space which has been added. 

On the opposite side of the house a new wing 
has been added to the second floor, parallel to 
the main building and at right angles to the ells 
in the rear. The front part of it has a pitched 
roof following the angle of that on the main build- 
ing, and the rear has a flat roof on a very low stud. 
This provides three additional rooms on the second 
floor. It has been built over an outdoor breakfast 
or morning-room on the first floor, and the kitchen 
has been widened under it. 

At the front of the house, the flat-roofed en- 
trance porch was removed, and one more in keep- 
ing with the Colonial period built in its place. 
This has a gabled roof, supported in front on two 
simple columns. The back part of it is closed and 
forms a small vestibule, with old-time oval windows 
extending on each side beyond the gabled roof-line. 
There are two benches in front, also beyond this line 
and protected by vine-grown lattices and small, ex- 
tending eaves. The floor is paved with brick. 

[44] 



THE CURTIS HOUSE 

These comprise the major changes to the ex- 
terior ; but new shingles were put on the old roof ; 
the dilapidated slat-shutters were replaced by 
blinds of solid wood, with a diamond cut in the 
upper panel after the old-time fashion; and the 
ugly red paint was changed to a soft Colonial buff. 

The narrow entrance hall, opening directly on 
the stairs, has not been altered. In the stairs, 
however, an exceedingly interesting treatment has 
been introduced, made necessary by the plan of 
the rooms above. On the first landing a doorway 
was cut in the chimney wall, and stairs built up 
the center of the chimney between the two flues. 
These give access to a small hall in the rear, con- 
necting the several bedrooms. The door that 
leads to these stairs, at the foot, is a "secret" 
one; that is, it is covered with the wall-paper 
which surrounds it and fits tightly into the wall 
without framing woodwork. 

At the right of the hallway the parlor and dining- 
room were thrown into one long living-room, and 
a pleasant triple window was cut in Jthe rear wall 
looking out upon the veranda. The fine old wood- 
work about the fireplace was restored to its original 
beauty with many coats of white paint. The hand- 
hewn beams in the ceiling were uncovered from 

[451 






S 
'" 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the casing which had hidden them, and the wood 
rubbed and oiled. The floor was found to be in 
good condition and, after the placing of additional 
boards where the partition was removed, was 
merely scraped, filled, stained, and polished. A 
semicircular corner cupboard in a reproduction of 
an old style, its shelves filled with interesting speci- 
mens of seventeenth-century pewter, gives char- 
acter to the room. The walls were finished in a 
soft shade of burlap, and the old mahogany furni- 
ture, chintz covers, rag rugs, and simple scrim 
curtains preserve the delightful atmosphere. 

On the opposite side of the hall is the library 
or den. This is unchanged, except for the white 
paint and the quaint Colonial wall-paper. Willow 
furniture is used. 

Back of this, and extending across to the living- 
room, is the dining-room. The beams show the 
position of the original walls and indicate the way 
in which the room was enlarged. This leaves 
the fireplace at the side of a sort of alcove and so, 
to balance it and give importance to that end of 
the room, a china closet was built across the corner. 
An unpaneled wainscot, with simple baseboard 
and molding at the top, runs around the room, the 
new part matching the old. The woodwork is all 

[46] 



THE CURTIS HOUSE 

white, including the encased beams, which here 
were not in a condition to be exposed. The upper 
walls are covered with a blue and silver grass-cloth 
that strikes an effective color note behind the 
mahogany furniture. In this room is a good 
example of the use of modern reproductions of 
Sheraton chairs with a genuine old sideboard. 

Glass doors lead from either end of the dining- 
room on to the two verandas. Both of these 
verandas are really rooms without walls, as they 
have been incorporated so completely within the 
lines and framework of the house. The one on the 
side of the house in front of the kitchen is used as 
a breakfast-room, and many of the other meals are 
served out here in the open air. That in the rear 
of the living-room is a delightful spot on summer 
afternoons and evenings. Both of these porches 
are thoroughly screened and fitted with framework 
in which glass sashes are placed during the winter. 

On the second floor there are four bedrooms and 
a bath in the main part of the building, with a 
sleeping balcony leading from one of them. This 
is protected with screens and awnings and fur- 
nished with hammocks and reclining chairs. In 
the wings there are three servants' rooms and a 
bath. All of the rooms have been fitted up in a 

[47] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

quaintly simple style that is thoroughly in keeping 
with the period of the house, the low ceilings, and 
fine woodwork. In some of the rooms there are 
valuable old pieces of furniture, a four-poster of 
the Sheraton type, and a highboy with details 
of the Queen Anne period. In another room mod- 
ern white enamel furniture has been used, but it is 
so simple and straightforward in design that it 
harmonizes entirely with the atmosphere of the 
room engendered by the old fireplace and chimney 
cupboard, the thumb latches on the doors, rag rugs, 
and an old-time wall-paper figured with stripes of 
morning-glories and daintily poised humming-birds. 
In this second floor, the old iron hardware has been 
largely used in strap and H and L hinges, latches, 
knobs, and shutter fastenings. 

Throughout the lower story, modern brass 
knobs and key plates reproducing an old Colonial 
pattern have been used, securing greater conven- 
ience and safety. 

Hot-air heating has been installed and electric 
lighting. The outlets, however, are all in the walls 
or baseboard sockets, so that there is no conspicuous 
inconsistency in the atmosphere, and lamps and 
candles are also used throughout the house. 



[48] 




Side View 




The Dining Room 
THE CURTIS HOUSE 




CO 

* 



W 

s 

z 

w 


O 



CHAPTER V 

GREEN MEADOWS 

THE architect of to-day has an advantage over 
the master builder of long ago in that he is able 
to grasp all ideas that were introduced into the 
old house and can restore it without losing the 
spirit of the original in either the exterior or in- 
terior. The wings and ells which were added by 
succeeding tenants often bear little relation to 
the main building and must either be torn down 
or harmonized in some way to preserve the unity 
of the completed design. The general plan of the 
house and the arrangement of the rooms should 
be carefully observed before the house owner and 
architect undertake the task of remodeling. Too 
many houses are disappointing because a study 
has not been made of the different types and periods 
of old houses, and the result is a mixture, neither 
one thing nor the other. 

Old Colonial houses were always built on the 
rectangular plan, as this provided the greatest 
amount of enclosed space with the least expendi- 

[49] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ture of labor and material. They were also con- 
structed about an axis, and it is essential for the 
remodeler to determine what that axis is before 
making any alterations. 

In the earliest days, the chimney was the center 
of the building and dominated the plan. The 
various rooms opened around it, so that as many 
of them as possible could have a fireplace from 
the one chimney. It was consequently a huge 
affair and occupied about three fourths as much 
space as one of the rooms. In the first plans, 
there were usually but two rooms, a kitchen on 
one side and a parlor on the other. Later, a 
room was built in the back for the kitchen, and 
a third opening made in the chimney. The nar- 
row stairs were built in at the front to fit into the 
chimney space and generally ascended with two 
landings and turns at right angles. 

As a late - development, about the time of the 
Revolution, four equally large rooms were needed, 
and this one chimney was divided into two and 
placed on either side of the center of the house, so 
that in each of the main rooms there was a fire- 
place opening front or back from one of the two 
chimneys. This arrangement altered the position 
of the stairs, and stairs and hall became the central 

[50] 



GREEN MEADOWS 

axis of the house. The proportion of the space 
allotted to them, however, remained about the 
same as when the chimney had occupied the center. 
This accounts for the wide Colonial halls, which 
are such a charming feature of old houses. The 
stairs were built along one side, the length of the 
hall, often a perfectly straight flight without 
turn or landing, and the hall was frequently cut 
clear through to a door in the back, which formed 
a rear exit to the garden. The Georgian houses 
at the end of the eighteenth century were com- 
monly built on this plan. 

There was one other distinct type, in which 
the fireplaces in the four corner rooms were in 
the outer walls, and four separate chimneys were 
built. The central hall and staircase retained 
their same dominant proportions, but a second 
cross hall was sometimes built, dividing the house 
from end to end. 

To all of these types, additions were frequently 
made, as the family increased, or new owners 
took possession. The extra space was not ac- 
quired by enlarging the main building but by 
adding an ell in the back at right angles to the 
original structure, or a wing at the side, parallel 
with it. These additions were attached to the 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

house by their smallest dimension, as that ob- 
structed the least amount of light. They were 
smaller than the main part ; many were but one 
story in height, and those that were two had a 
lower stud, so that the original building would 
remain the important feature in the whole. 

After examining the old house from this point 
of view, consider the new uses to which it will be 
put and determine what changes will have to 
be made. Sketch the entire plan out before com- 
mencing an alteration, and then endeavor to see 
if the proposed remodeling is practical from a 
structural point of view, and if it harmonizes with 
the original spirit of the old building. Mark out 
in each room the position of windows and decide 
where new ones may have to be cut in the re- 
arranged interiors. Study the fireplaces and find 
out whether the proposed removal of a partition 
wall will throw them out of balance in the rooms, 
and what you can do to counteract it. Pay partic- 
ular attention to closet room, for in the old days 
it *was given too little consideration for modern 
requirements. 

Draw rough plans and put your ideas regarding 
every possibility down on paper; it is surprising 
how many new suggestions will occur as each 

[52] 



GREEN MEADOWS 

scheme is worked out, and there is a fascination 
in seeing how much can be fitted into a given 
space. After the work is begun, unforeseen condi- 
tions will crop up and necessitate changes in the 
project, as well as disclose new opportunities, 
but a greater part of the planning can be done 
beforehand. 

A roomy, old, New England farmhouse near 
Hamilton was recognized by Mr. George Bur- 
roughs as a fertile subject for development into 
a beautiful country home. It was situated in 
the heart of rolling country and surrounded by 
wide stretches of grass land, from which the estate 
was named "Green Meadows." 

The original house, separated from the highway 
by an old wall of field stone and an elm-shaded 
dooryard, was built in 1786, and it is curious to 
note that no deed was ever recorded. It was the 
usual type of farmhouse, constructed about a 
central chimney, two and a half stories in height, 
with an unbroken roof line. Subsequent owners 
had added wings at each side instead of the more 
customary ell at the rear. One of these wings 
is of brick, which indicates that it was probably 
not built before the middle of the last century, 
but although the two building materials seem 

[53] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

incongruous in the one house, vines have so over- 
grown this wing that the red glimpsed through 
them and contrasting with the white walls of the 
house is very attractive. 

The only important alterations in the exterior 
appearance of the house were in the addition of 
the long veranda across the rear and the altera- 
tion of the frame wing at the right. The" old 
structure was found to be in too dilapidated a 
condition to restore, but it was reproduced in all 
its exterior details and joined to the end of a new 
wing attached to the house and a trifle broader 
than the old. Two hip-roofed dormers add to 
the space in the second floor and permit the 
construction of attractive servants' quarters. 

The frame of the entrance door in the center 
of the front facade is a particularly happy example 
of the simple Georgian style used in the better 
class of farmhouses of that day. Its flat pilasters 
and well-proportioned cornice illustrate the re- 
straint and refinement in the work of even the 
average builders. 

The door itself opens into a small hallway, 
restored with fresh white paint to all its original 
beauty. 

On this left side of the house the partition be- 

[54] 



GREEN MEADOWS 

tween the old dining-room and parlor has been 
removed to make one large living-room. After 
the cornices and the wainscoting were restored, 
the woodwork, including the encased beams in 
the ceiling, was painted white. The condition 
of the old floor made it necessary to lay a new 
one of hard wood. This room admirably reflects 
the old Colonial spirit in its fireplace and cup- 
boards. The paneling above the mantel shelf 
presents an interesting variation in the framing 
of fireplaces. The original wainscot with its 
molded cap divides the wall surface in an agree- 
able proportion, and the rather heavy cornice 
moldings at the ceiling line relieve the emphasis 
of the great beams. The old hardware is used 
on doors and windows, the thumb latches are 
finished in the natural black, and the H and L 
hinges painted white to correspond with the wood- 
work. The upper part of the walls is covered with 
a rose-colored paper reproducing a conventional 
Georgian medallion design in silvery gray. This 
rose color has been carried out in all the furnish- 
ings of this room; the upholstery of chairs and 
sofas is in a deeper shade; the over-curtains are 
somewhat paler, and in the Oriental rugs, rose 
blends with soft browns and blues. Old-fashioned 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Venetian blinds or slat-curtains shade the win- 
dows in the living-room and throughout the house. 

On the opposite side of the entrance hall is the 
reception-room. The same treatment has been ac- 
corded here as in the living-room, and the furnish- 
ings are especially harmonious and well arranged. 
The long, low lines of an Adam sofa, a slender- 
legged desk, and chairs and table, each one a 
noteworthy masterpiece of cabinet making, are 
admirably chosen to add apparent height to the 
low stud, but the monotony of too much light and 
low furniture is broken by a tall grandfather 
clock placed in the corner. The pictures on the 
walls, old prints simply framed in mahogany, 
are hung with a similar thought to increase the 
apparent height of the room, and their arrange- 
ment is well worth studying. The fireplace, on 
the opposite side of the chimney from that in the 
living-room, is equally interesting. The wall above 
the white wainscot is papered in a golden yellow 
of conventional flowers, and the upholstery and 
draperies are of a golden striped and figured Adam 
damask that brings out the rich color of the 
satinwood and mahogany furniture. 

In the rear, on the same side of the house, is 
the dining-room. The old woodwork here was 

[56] 





Two Views of the Den 
GREEN MEADOWS 




The Old-fashioned Chamber 




The Living Room 
GREEN MEADOWS 



GREEN MEADOWS 

insignificant, and it has been replaced with modern 
paneled wainscot covering two thirds of the wall 
surface. One could wish that the proportions 
of the original woodwork had been a little more 
closely followed, and the atmosphere of the other 
rooms carried more definitely into this. The 
old fireplace has been retained across the corner 
of the room with its flue in the central chimney, 
but its frame is a modern conception. The 
chimney cupboard in the side has been turned 
into a china closet with a new door of mullioned 
glass displaying interesting old pewter and plates. 
The upper third of the wall above the wainscot 
is covered with a reproduction of an old-time 
scenic paper in greens and grays, and the window 
hangings are of corresponding colors in damask. 
The seats of the Hepplewhite chairs carry the 
same tones in tapestry. The apparent size of 
the dining-room has been cleverly increased by 
carrying the decorative motives into the passage- 
way which connects it with the service quarters 
in the right wing. The same paneling of the 
wainscot and the same paper above, seen through 
the double doorway, give the impression that this is 
all part of the one room, and the placing of a buffet 
in front of the opening enhances the effect. 

is?] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

On the other side of the dining-room a small 
hall, paneled with white enameled woodwork to 
the ceiling, leads into the living-room. 

French doors of glass open from here on to the 
wide veranda which has been added across the 
back of the house, overlooking the green meadows 
and shady vales that stretch away on all sides. 

From this veranda or from the living-room, one 
can enter the brick wing at the left of the house. 
This originally contained the kitchen with bed- 
rooms above, but in altering it, the entire wing 
was thrown into one room opened to the roof. 
With the great old beams and rafters showing, 
and all the woodwork stained dark, this apart- 
ment lends itself admirably to the character of 
a den or smoking-room. At the end, the old 
kitchen chimney has been utilized for a fireplace, 
and old paneling inserted above the high mantel. 
Seats have been built under the windows flanking 
the chimney and, with their soft cushions and 
pillows, add materially to the comfort of the room. 
The windows in this wing are unusually large, 
an indication of the later date of its construction, 
and in order to carry the same proportions in 
their divisions as in the older part of the house, 
twenty-four panes of glass were used in each. 

[58] 



GREEN MEADOWS 

A rich green and brown landscape paper covers 
the upper two thirds of the walls above the wainscot 
molding. The upholstery and cushions on daven- 
port, armchairs, and window-seats of brown leather 
stamp this apartment indelibly as a man's room, 
and the decorations of old flint-locks in one corner 
add to the effect. 

The service quarters of the house in the wings 
at the right have been made especially complete. 
In the middle section are butler's pantry, kitchen, 
laundry, and refrigerator, with two bedrooms on 
the second floor; and in the narrower part is a 
servants' hall and three bedrooms which are open 
to the roof. 

On the upper floor of the main part of the house 
the four bedrooms have been kept much as in the 
past. Those in the rear have been made to open 
out, through double doors, on to the second story 
of the veranda, which can be used as a sleeping- 
porch. The old white woodwork and the original 
fireplaces add their ineffable charm. The floors 
were in poor condition and are covered with mat- 
ting as a background for the rag rugs. Some very 
interesting old pieces of furniture add to the atmos- 
phere of these chambers. 

The registers of the hot-air heating system which 

[59] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

has been installed are unusually well selected for 
an old Colonial house. Instead of the customary 
meaningless scroll and meander pattern in the 
grills, a simple square lattice has been used, which 
preserves the spirit of other days admirably. 



[60] 



CHAPTER VI 

NAWN FARM 

CITY people are prone to think that the country 
is agreeable only during the summer months, 
and that winters spent there are unpleasant and 
dreary. This notion is fast being dispelled, as 
country houses are kept open longer and longer 
each year, and the pleasures of country week-ends 
during the entire winter are definitely proven. 
There is in reality no more delightful place to 
spend the long winter months than in the heart 
of a beautiful country. A never-ending round of 
interests astonishes one who has never tried it 
before. Each month brings a fresh phase, and 
it is hard to determine whether the country is 
at its best during the summer or winter season. 

There is a fascination indescribable in watching 
the fall of snow, the settling of flakes on the bare 
limbs, the transition from brown to diamond- 
covered branches that glisten with every motion 
and are often decorated with long icicles reflecting 
all the prismatic colors. If you have never seen 

[61] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

this side of country life, you will find it a won- 
derful world, where it is intensely interesting to 
study the seasons in turn, note the coming and 
going of birds, look for the early and late flowers, 
watch the melting of snows and the swelling of 
buds in the warm spring suns. 

More active pleasures, too, await the adventurer 
in the winter country. There are so many sports 
to be enjoyed that one does not wonder the youth 
delights to come here for skating, snow-shoeing, 
or toboganning. What is more delightful than a 
sleighing party, whose destination is a remodeled 
farmhouse not too many miles from the city ? 
Start the cheery fire in the huge fireplace, pile 
on the six-foot logs, draw your chairs nearer while 
you forget the outside world, and feel a glow of 
delight that you, too, have joined the throng who 
know the thrill of country life. 

The first thing to do when contemplating an 
all-the-year-round country home is to look for a 
house in the right location. In selecting it the 
problem of heating must be thought of in a differ- 
ent way than as that for merely summer use. 
Then fireplaces will amply suffice for the few cool 
days and chilly evenings, and no better method 
could be desired. But for the real cold of winter, 

[62] 



NAWN FARM 

whether for continued use or the occasional week- 
end, more complete heating will need to be pro- 
vided. 

The cheapest and simplest way is undoubtedly 
by stoves which can be attached to the fireplace 
flues. But this necessitates closing up the fire- 
place and depriving family and guests of all the 
joys of the blazing logs which never seem more 
cheerful and hospitable than in the bitterest 
weather. If the house is to be used mainly for 
week-end parties, stoves have another serious 
drawback. They must be kept oiled when not 
in use, to prevent their rusting, and it takes nearly 
two days after the fire is lighted to burn the oil 
off. Then, when closing up the house again, the 
stove must be re-oiled, and this necessitates putting 
the fire out and waiting in the cold house until 
the metal is sufficiently cool to apply the treat- 
ment. 

The most adequate method is by hot water or 
steam, and for a large country house these are 
really the only practical ways. The expense 
involved will depend upon the structure of the 
house. In a brick or stone building, it will cost 
a good deal to have the pipes built into the wall. 
Sometimes conditions will allow them to be carried 

[63] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

up in a closet or partition. In a frame house 
that has been built with deep window jambs, as 
was so often done in the olden times, the pipes 
can be hidden within this furred framework. 
The great objection to steam or hot-water systems 
in old houses, however, is the presence of the 
radiator, which never can be made to harmonize 
thoroughly with the spirit of the old building. 
When it is used, some attempt must be made to 
disguise it. If it can be made long and low and 
placed in front of a window, it can be treated as 
a window-seat with a metal grill in front. For 
houses of the later Georgian period, grills can be 
found whose designs are not at all out of keeping 
with the other classical details. Sometimes a 
radiator can be placed entirely within the furred 
partition, and the heat admitted into the room 
through paneled doors which are thrown open 
when it is in use. 

For small houses, the hot-air system is perhaps 
the most desirable. The registers are inconspicu- 
ous and bring no jarring note into the old-time 
atmosphere. The pipes require considerable over- 
head room in the cellar, which sometimes becomes 
a hard problem in the low foundations of old 
houses. The fact that it is difficult to drive the 

[64] 




Rear View 




The Living Room 
NAWN FARM 



NAWN FARM 

hot air against the wind raises a second objection, 
but if the furnace is placed in the corner of the 
house from which the cold winds blow, or even a 
second furnace is installed, the trouble will be 
largely overcome. And there is the great advan- 
tage, especially for a week-end house, that it can 
be started up or left at a moment's notice with- 
out trouble from water in the pipes or danger of 
freezing as in the hot-water systems. 

Whatever the method decided upon, it is an 
interesting work from start to finish. One feels 
a thrill of adventure in evoking from the home 
of past generations one for twentieth-century 
living with all the comforts and appliances neces- 
sary. But to transform an old building that has 
never even been intended for living purposes into 
a residence that is not only comfortable and 
suited to the owner's needs but an architectural 
success as well, is a still more fascinating problem. 
How Messrs. Killam and Hopkins have accom- 
plished this with an old barn at Dover and kept 
the distinctive simplicity and atmosphere of the 
original building is worthy of emulation. 

When Mrs. Genevieve Fuller bought the Nawn 
Farm some three years ago, it was her intention 
to alter the farmhouse then on the property. 

[65] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Its location, however, was not entirely favorable; 
the house was on sloping ground in somewhat of 
a hollow and too near the public road. Besides 
this, the rooms were small and very much out of 
repair. On the crest of the hill was the barn, 
occupying a commanding position and framed 
in splendid old trees. The structure was found 
to be so stanch that it was decided to tear down 
the old house and convert the barn into the resi- 
dence. 

The foundations were left unchanged, and an 
ell on the north side was added for the service 
portion of the building. The supports and interior 
divisions are all virtually unaltered. The living 
and dining rooms occupy the positions of the 
former mows, and the hall connecting them is the 
old passage for the wagons. Most of the original 
studding has been used as it stood, and the beams 
incased or hidden in the finish of the walls. The 
roof was flattened on the top, and the gables cut 
off, but the slope was unaltered. Wider eaves 
were added at a slightly different pitch, softening 
the lines of the roof. 

Doors and windows were, of course, cut anew 
to conform with the different usage of the build- 
ing. Their position was necessarily determined 

[66] 



NAWN FARM 

somewhat by the existing supports, but they have 
been very happily placed, whether in groups or 
singly. Those of the sleeping rooms on the second 
floor are especially well handled; they are wide 
and raised well up under the overhanging roof, so 
that they carry out the broad low lines of the 
architecture. The openings of the sleeping-porches 
have been treated exactly as windows, their 
size corresponding with the apparent dimensions 
of the windows, and their locations determined 
by the same factors. They become at once an 
integral part of the structure instead of the un- 
sightly excrescence which the presence of a sleep- 
ing-porch so often proves. 

On the first floor, the living-room occupies 
the entire eastern end, having exposures on three 
sides. This has been attractively finished in 
gum wood stained a dark brown, and the warm 
tones of natural colored grass-cloth tone the walls. 
An interesting treatment has been accorded the 
fireplace by flanking it on either side with a nook, 
the outer walls of which cleverly conceal parts 
of the old structure. In each of the recesses is a 
small window above the paneling and window-seat. 
The furnishings of the room are appropriately 
simple and invitingly comfortable, suggesting old- 

[67] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

fashioned things adapted for modern uses. Espe- 
cial interest is attached to the fireplace fittings; 
they are of hand-forged iron, wrought by the 
village blacksmith after designs of the owner. 
The andirons were made from the tires of old cart 
wheels, flattened and bent into shape and curled 
over at the top. The wood-box is of flat strips 
of iron interlaced. 

From one wing of the hall ascend stairs which 
are the faithful reproduction of an old Colonial 
design. The other part of the hall, across the 
southern front, is so broad and cheerful with two 
big windows and two glass doors opening on to 
the sunny loggia that it has been furnished with a 
davenport, tables, and chairs almost as a second 
living-room. The woodwork is North Carolina 
pine stained brown, and the walls are gray. 

The billiard-room back of this, hall, with its 
attractive alcove and fireplace, is finished in 
fumed oak, and the walls are also gray. 

Perhaps the distinction of being the most attrac- 
tive room in the house can be accorded the din- 
ing-room with its Colonial white woodwork. The 
fireplace and the china closet, balanced on the 
other side by the door into the pantry, are of excel- 
lent proportions and charming detail. The mul- 

[68] 





Two Views of the Dining Room 
NAWN FARM 




The China Closet in the Dining Room 
NAWN FARM 



NAWN FARM 

lioned panes of the china closet and the treatment 
of the moldings about the frame are especially 
interesting. On the opposite side of the room a 
group of three windows provides opportunity 
for an unusually delightful feature in the long 
window-box, built by the village carpenter. Its 
simple, sturdy lines are worthy of notice. The 
walls are papered in a deep cream, and the greatest 
simplicity maintained in the furniture and dra- 
peries. *~-tJ 

The service portion is well arranged both for 
convenience of labor and comfort of the domestics. 
The basement laundry leads directly into a large 
drying yard which was the original enclosure for 
the cows and is surrounded by the same wall of 
field stone. 

Up-stairs the rooms might be said to be divided 
into three suites, which can be practically shut 
off from each other: each has its own bath and 
sleeping-porch. In the group over the living- 
room there has been an ingenious solution of the 
structural conditions. The division of the rooms 
made possible by the old supports permitted a 
dressing-room to be placed conveniently between 
the two chambers, but the fireplace added in 
the living-room was directly below, so that the 

[69] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

chimney would naturally cut off the outside wall. 
It would have been possible to construct a large 
fireplace in the dressing-room and allow the light 
to come through the chambers, but the archi- 
tects evolved another scheme. The chimney was 
carried up on one side, providing a fireplace for 
one of the chambers, and a second chimney was 
built in the opposite corner of the dressing-room. 
In the space between, a window was cut, and the 
two flues joined directly over the window. From 
the outside of the building this gives a most 
unusual effect as there is a chimney directly over 
a window, having no apparent support, or even 
purpose. The lines of the pyramidal base con- 
form to the slope of the roof. 



[70] 



CHAPTER VII 

BOULDER FARM 

THE remodeling of an old farmhouse is appar- 
ently a simple matter; it would at first seem 
necessary only to preserve the main lines and 
characteristics of the original in the alterations 
that are required to meet the conditions of modern 
life. But when one realizes that the less conspicu- 
ous details are also important, in order to main- 
tain the essential harmony of the whole, it be- 
comes a more intricate proposition. One cannot 
merely study the details already on the building 
and slavishly copy them for the new parts, be- 
cause frequently it will be found that doors or 
windows or shutters have been added by more 
recent owners and are not really in keeping with 
the old structure at all. In order to reclaim the 
house, then, so that it shall have a consistent unity 
throughout, one must have some understanding 
of the evolution of these details. 

There is no more significant element in these 
old Colonial houses than the front door. It was 

[71] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

placed in the center of the front wall and formed 
the unit of the exterior design. The very early 
doors were of heavy oak boards placed vertically 
and fastened together with horizontal strips. 
These batten doors, as they were called, were 
made very sturdy and- strong, in order to resist 
attacks from Indians or other marauders. Often 
they were marked with an awl into diamond and 
lozenge patterns and sometimes studded with 
hand-wrought nails. Not for a good many years 
did the panel door come into use. At first it 
was a flat panel, flush with the sides of the door 
and separated from the sides and top only by a 
small bead molding. This was soon developed 
into the flat sunken panel, meeting the surround- 
ing wood with several moldings ; and then the 
panels were beveled and raised in the center, and 
the moldings gradually became more elaborate 
and delicate in outline. The early doors were 
solid for purposes of protection, but as the coun- 
try became more settled, thick bull's-eye glass 
was inserted into the top horizontal panel to let 
light into the hall. As the interior plan was 
changed in its evolution, the hall became larger, 
and these bull's-eyes did not provide sufficient 
light, so the transom was introduced over the 

[7*1 



BOULDER FARM 

door. For some time a simple top light was 
used, divided by lead and then wooden muntins. 
Then side lights were introduced, and the treat- 
ment became more elaborate in the beautiful 
styles of the later Georgian period. 

The frame about the door was at first of flat, 
undecorated boards, the upper one resting on the 
two at the sides. Then these were molded and 
mitered at the corners, and later a cap of heavier 
moldings was put across the top. This hood 
became more and more prominent and required 
the use of definite support. Console brackets 
were sometimes used but more frequently flat 
pilasters set against the wall. These gradually be- 
came more important, developing into the three- 
quarter round and finally the isolated column. 
The pediment and cornice were then extended 
into the open porch that is one of the splendid 
features of the Georgian style. Here in cornice 
and capital was a field for the development of all 
the most delicate and beautiful motives of classic 
carving. 

As this door and porch was the center of the 
design of the exterior, the windows were grouped 
symmetrically about it, the same on each side. 
There were few of them at first, and they were 

[731 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

of rather small size. Casement windows were 
the earliest kind used, and the small, diamond 
panes were sunk in lead, as were those made in 
the mother country. It is probable that most of 
these windows were brought over from England 
and not constructed here. After 1700, the sliding 
sash was introduced, dividing the windows hori- 
zontally, and these had wooden muntins. It must 
have been considered a more elegant type of 
window, for it was used in the front of the house 
for a long time, while the leaded casement was still 
put in rear windows for many years. The early 
wooden muntins were quite heavy but later became 
nearly as delicate as the leaden ones. They divided 
the sash horizontally and vertically into squares. 

The window casings, like the door frames, were 
at first entirely plain and then had a heavier 
band across the top which developed into a molded 
cap or cornice, as at the entrance. When sliding 
sashes were introduced, the walls of the houses 
were not thick enough to contain them, so the 
frames and the sashes were built on to the out- 
side, frequently projecting quite a distance. The 
necessity for constructing them in this way led 
to the deep jambs and sills which are such a 
charming characteristic of the Colonial style. 

[741 




The Front Doorway 
BOULDER FARM 



BOULDER FARM 

Shutters were used on the outside of the house 
as a means of protection from the Indians, when 
the country was being settled, and these were 
made of heavy, battened wood three or four inches 
thick, like the doors. Subsequently a small dia- 
mond was cut in the top to admit some light when 
the shutter was closed. Then a shutter with a 
solid upper and lower panel was used, and finally 
these panels were replaced with slats. 

There was one other part of the exterior which 
developed interesting characteristics to be ob- 
served in the remodeling : that is, the cornice of 
the roof. This was merely the overhang in the 
early buildings and sometimes consisted of the 
framing beam actually exposed. In the Georgian 
houses, this was boxed and later elaborated with 
splendid carvings that deserve perpetuation in 
more lasting material than wood. There was no 
gutter for rain-water, and the drip from the eaves 
was caught on flagstones on the ground at the 
corners of the house. This detail, although not 
needed with modern gutters and rain pipes, gives 
a charming old-time touch when retained in the 
remodeled home. 

It is by attention to such seemingly insignifi- 
cant points that the atmosphere of the original 

[75] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

buildings has been consistently retained in so many 
cases. An excellent instance of how this has 
been done may be seen in a late Georgian type of 
farmhouse that stands somewhat back from the 
old Londonderry turnpike on an estate at Hopkin- 
ton, New Hampshire. Although it is not very 
old, having been built in 1820, it is typical of the 
better class of simple home in the early days of 
the Republic. 

The history of the building of this old house is 
rather interesting. In the days when lotteries 
were still in flourishing condition, and some of 
the best men in the community were interesting 
themselves in the various schemes, a member of 
one of the churches induced Deacon Philip Brown's 
hired man to purchase a ticket for a paltry sum. 
Repenting his investment, he afterwards sold 
it to his employer, who was a clever silversmith 
and clock-maker, much respected and well known 
in the community through his yearly rounds 
about Hopkinton to repair the clocks of the 
farmers. The ticket proved to be the winning 
one, that drew a great prize. With part of this 
money, Deacon Brown purchased the old "Boulder 
Farm," as it was called from a great rock that 
still stands in an open field just south of the house. 

[76] 



BOULDER FARM 

Here he erected the Georgian farmhouse that is 
standing to-day. The rest of the money, so the 
legend runs, he buried somewhere in the field, but 
he probably removed it later, as it has never been 
found. 

He placed the house on rising land, a short 
distance from the broad highway, built in the same 
year and for a long time the straight thoroughfare 
from Londonderry to Concord and Boston. Dea- 
con Brown lived on the estate until 1846, with 
the exception of the year 1830, when it was occu- 
pied by Governor Matthew Harvey of New 
Hampshire. The property, placed on the market, 
then fell into the hands of a man named Kelly, 
brother-in-law to Grace Fletcher, the first wife 
of Daniel Webster. During his life, the great 
American statesman often visited there. What 
happened during the period between this occu- 
pancy and the time of its purchase by Mr. Harry 
Dudley of Concord, New Hampshire, is not 
recorded, but we can be confident that the house 
had careful treatment from its state of preserva- 
tion. 

It was while Mr. Dudley was looking around 
for a home with ample grounds, and near enough 
to his business to allow him to go back and forth 

[771 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

every day, that he discovered this historic place. 
Its attractiveness and the healthfulness of the 
surroundings appealed to him. Very little was 
needed to bring the house back to good condition 
and make it habitable. The land was attractive 
and could be improved. In front of the house 
was a wide stretch of meadow that was easily 
terraced to meet the boundary line. To the many 
old trees shading the house and lawn were added 
young trees to replace some of the ancient ones 
that were dying. 

Although the house was a model type of the 
architecture of its day, and there had been abun- 
dant room for the old-time residents, modern 
ways of living demanded additional space. A 
long ell, built at the rear for the service depart- 
ment, and a wide veranda in dignified Colonial 
style along one side were the two main exterior 
alterations. The appearance of the windows was 
changed by putting in larger panes in order to 
admit more light, but they were still in keeping 
with the old-time atmosphere. The reshingling 
and repainting of the house and the addition of 
the trellises at one side completed the exterior 
improvements. The splendid front entrance 
porch with its graceful fanlight, Doric columns, 

[78] 




The Hall 
BOULDER FARM 




The Den 




The Parlor 
BOULDER FARM 



BOULDER FARM 

and straight cornice, and the equally interesting 
though less imposing side porch were left prac- 
tically unchanged. The old blinds were restored, 
to give the stately, old-time atmosphere to the 
mansion. 

The new veranda is wide and extends along the 
whole side of the house. Its flat roof rests on 
coupled Doric columns that carry out the classi- 
cal Georgian detail of the entrance porch ; the 
second story is finished with a simple balustrade, 
in keeping with the fine simplicity of the main 
lines. During the summer months this broad 
piazza is a delightful out-of-door living-room, 
from which there is a splendid view over the green 
country ; and one can, in imagination, picture the 
old stage-coaches of former days lumbering by on 
the highroad. The upper part of the veranda 
opening from the chambers on that side of the 
house is used as a sleeping-porch. 

The path that leads to the main entrance 
passes through a wicket gate and ascends the ter- 
race over stone steps to the granite block before 
the door. The pleasant formality of this porch 
is accentuated by two close-clipped bay trees, 
one on either side of the step. 

This door opens directly into the hall and faces 

[79) 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the long, straight flight of stairs which reaches 
the second floor without a turn. The woodwork 
of these stairs is particularly nice in proportion 
and line; and the carving under the ends of the 
steps, in a simple but beautiful scroll design, is 
most interesting. The hand-rail is mahogany, 
and the molding which follows it on the wall side 
above the wainscoting is also mahogany. 

In the parlor at the left no innovation has been 
introduced, and it remains almost as when the 
house was built. There we find the old white 
wainscoting unpaneled, with a fine 'carved mold- 
ing defining the top. The windows, recessed in 
the Colonial style, retain their original inside 
shutters that are still used. It is unusual to find 
these to-day, for in remodeling houses the shutters 
are almost always removed in favor of more mod- 
ern conveniences. Shutters were formerly used 
as we now employ curtains, to be closed at night- 
fall or to shut out light and cold. The fireplace 
in this room is a fine example of Colonial work. 
It shows a central medallion of a plentifully filled 
fruit basket and wheat sheaves over the fluted 
side columns ; the edge of the mantel shelf has an 
unusual ball and string ornamentation finely 
carved. The wall-paper dates back to the time 

[80] 



BOULDER FARM 

of the fireplace. It shows a Grecian pastoral de- 
sign in shades of brown, yellow, and old rose and 
was hand-printed from blocks made in England. 
Through all these years it has retained its bright- 
ness, escaping the hands of time, and lends a 
charming and quaint atmosphere to this room. 
All of the movable furnishings are equally well in 
keeping; the slat-back chairs and tables con- 
form to the spirit of the period, as does the fine 
old Empire mirror, resting on its rosettes. 

On the opposite side of the hall from the parlor 
is the living-room. This is similar in character, 
with a fireplace only slightly less interesting. 
It has the same old white wainscoting, but the 
upper walls have been covered with a modern 
foliage paper which, strangely enough, blends 
harmoniously with the setting of the room. It 
is furnished with eighteenth-century pieces corre- 
sponding to those in the other parts of the house. 

At the end of the hall is the dining-room, reached 
through an open arch. The old wall and door 
here were cut away in the remodeling to produce 
an impression of spaciousness and give a vista 
from the entrance clear through the house and 
into the garden at the rear. The arch was added 
to finish the opening, but it conforms carefully 

[81] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

to the details found in the architecture of that 
day. This room was originally divided, and one 
part used as a kitchen, but the partition was re- 
moved and the two thrown into one, making a long 
dining-room which occupies the greater part of 
the rear of the house. At the end, the old single 
window was enlarged, and two smaller ones cut 
through on either side to make a delightful sunny 
group which adds materially to the charm of the 
room. In the fireplace, which was the original 
old kitchen one, used for cooking and baking, 
the brick oven was removed to admit the intro- 
duction of a door opening into the living-room. 
Otherwise it was left unchanged, and the white 
painted woodwork about it, although simple and 
unpretentious, is beautifully proportioned. The 
old flint-lock and warming-pan which hang there 
pleasantly emphasize the Colonial idea. The 
wall-paper is a reproduction of a Colonial block 
pattern in soft shades of gray and green. The 
floors in this room, as all over the house, are 
covered with matting laid over the original boards, 
which were found to be in too bad a condition to 
restore ; entirely new ones would have been neces- 
sitated had bare, polished floors been demanded. 
At the end of the dining-room, opposite the 

[82] 



BOULDER FARM 

triple window, a door leads into a small room 
which is used as a den. This retains the old 
fireplace opening from the same chimney and 
directly back of that in the parlor. The walls 
have been papered in a plain green and are spar- 
ingly decorated with sporting prints and trophies 
suggestive of the hunt and the master's particu- 
lar domain. Doors lead from this room not only 
into the dining-room, but to the parlor and the 
veranda at the side. 

The ell of the house, opening from the dining- 
room, is devoted to butler's pantry, kitchen, 
servants' dining-room, and servants' chambers on 
the second floor. 

The upper story of the main part of the house 
has been kept almost as when it was built, and the 
large square chambers are well-lighted and airy. 
The open fireplaces and the Colonial furniture, 
four-posters and highboys and chests, give to the 
rooms a delightfully old-fashioned atmosphere. 

The whole house is a fine example of late Geor- 
gian architecture, preserved in all its interesting 
detail. 



[83] 



CHAPTER VIII 

THREE ACRES 

FEW people realize how much thought should 
be put into the remodeling of a farmhouse, and 
many fail to keep the simple country atmos- 
phere; they endeavor to establish in suburban 
surroundings a home that is better suited to city 
life. A house reclaimed in this way is neces- 
sarily a misfit and must always seem inharmonious 
in its setting. It never carries out the idea for 
which we are striving : that a house should be 
typical of the life of the people who live in it. 
It should express individuality, be a house to live 
in, to grow in, to become identified with your 
life; this is a most important fact that cannot 
be too carefully observed, and it becomes all the 
more essential if the home is to be an all-the-year- 
round one and not merely a summer residence 
where but a few months are passed. 

To-day it is a far more difficult matter to se- 
lect an old farmhouse of sufficient distinction to 
remodel than it was even ten years ago. The 

[84] 





Two Views of the Dining Room 
BOULDER FARM 




THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD 



THREE ACRES 

most desirable ones have already been bought, 
since the pleasures of living in the country have 
been realized by so many former dwellers in the 
city. There are many personal matters to be 
thought of in the selection of a house for remodel- 
ing ; one must consider his individual needs in its 
relation to his daily pursuits. The business man 
must select a house near enough to the city to 
allow traveling back and forth every day ; but the 
man whose occupation does not require city life 
during the time he wishes to be in the country can 
establish himself wherever he chooses. There is 
ao doubt that the latter is able to find a far better 
farmhouse, for he can go farther away, where the 
best types have not been reclaimed, owing to their 
distances from the large cities. 

It is to be taken for granted that a person has 
a definite purpose when he leaves the city for a 
country existence, and it is necessary that he 
educate himself to the point where he makes his 
ideas practical. This cannot be done without 
study beforehand. In making a house suit indi- 
vidual requirements, one must follow along its 
own lines. Do not attempt to transplant into it 
features from some other house you admire. An 
Elizabethan gable or a craftsman living-room 

[85] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

may have been very interesting in the friends' 
houses in which you saw them, but they would 
be quite out of place thrust into a Colonial farm- 
house. If you have a real need for the features 
that you find in some other house, you should 
adapt them to the spirit of the building you are 
remodeling. 

If it cannot be made to harmonize with the 
other motives, it is possible that you are attempt- 
ing to make a home out of a building that is not 
suited to your style of life. But it is because 
these Colonial farmhouses meet the requirements 
of the average American families so adequately 
that they are so interesting to remodel. Each 
house owner must decide for himself what is the 
main element in his existence and reclaim the 
house accordingly. In one family, the interests 
will be entirely domestic; another household 
will live in the open, occupied with sports; an- 
other devotes much time to music ; and there are 
still others who are absorbed in some special craft 
or work that will require definite accommoda- 
tions. In many cases the house can readily be 
adapted to these particular requirements with- 
out any essential change in its atmosphere. The 
success that is achieved by working with these 

[86] 



THREE ACRES 

old-time elements is due to their sincerity and 
honesty in solving the problems of their own day 
and age; they are the results of actual and real 
experience, and we know no better ways to meet 
the same conditions. So that when we have the 
same problems confronting us, we cannot do better 
than accept the successful results of others' experi- 
ments. 

This does not mean a v slavish copying of the old 
in restoration; to simply imitate old elements 
would be neither interesting nor commendable, 
except for the purposes of a museum. Each 
style is based upon some fundamental principle, 
and it should be our aim to work with the under- 
lying idea of creating that which will best meet 
our special needs, not merely to reproduce the 
old in imitation of itself. 

Nature lends itself to the remodeling and 
suggests many ideas that help to identify the 
house with the personality of its owner. Every- 
thing attempted in the way of improvements 
can be broad and expansive and not congested, 
as would be necessary in the city. You should 
in every particular make the house grow to fit 
the surroundings and do it in such a way that it 
will seem to have been so always. Often the 

[87] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

house has to be moved on its foundations to meet 
this need, but that is not a difficult matter to 
accomplish, if the timbers are stanch and the 
underpinning steady. 

If the owner's ideas are carried out, the house 
in its finished condition will be but an expression 
of his taste and understanding. In it we will 
be able to read his likes and dislikes. Unity 
should be the keynote of it all and should per- 
meate not only the house itself in all its details, 
but its gardens, lawns, stables, and every aspect of 
the estate. 

There is a house that has been given rare indi- 
viduality in this way at Duxbury, Massachusetts. 
As one drives along the picturesque country road, 
he comes to a winding lane that leads by graceful 
turns to a little brown farmhouse situated on the 
crest of a hill about three hundred yards from the 
main road. If the farmhouse alone is attractive, 
how much more so is it made by the entrance, for 
on either side are graceful elms that form an arch- 
way, disclosing the house beyond like a picture 
set in a rustic frame. On either side of the road- 
way one finds meadow lands and flower and vege- 
table gardens, everywhere dotted with graceful 
trees and the picturesque sumach. Vines clamber 

[88] 



THREE ACRES 

over the stone walls, partly hiding their rough- 
ness and giving their homelike atmosphere to the 
grounds. There are just three acres in this little 
property, bounded on two sides by delightful 
woodlands and on the others by rolling farmland 
and pastures ; but there is room in even these 
small confines for a garden to supply the table 
all the year round and a bit of orchard where the 
gnarled old apple-trees are still fruitful. 

Originally the old farmhouse was in a most 
unprepossessing condition. It had been inhabited 
for many years by farmer folk who took little 
pains with its appearance either without or within. 
When Mrs. Josephine Hartwell Shaw, of Boston, 
was searching for a country seat where she could 
pursue her occupation away from the bustle of 
city life and unmolested by chance guests, she was 
attracted first of all to the quiet little town by the 
name of Duxbury. As she looked about for a 
suitable house, she was charmed with the location 
of this weather-beaten old building, and closer 
examination proved it well worth reclaiming, both 
from an artist's point of view and from that of 
her own individual requirements. 

Like many of the farmhouses in eastern Massa- 
chusetts, it had that peculiar beauty which 

[89] 



f f I 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

consisted largely in its simple and straightforward 
solution of the problems at hand. It was not the 
creation of a master architect but of ordinary 
builders and craftsmen following the traditions of 
their fathers, varied by the restrictions of local 
material and newer requirements. It is this 
rugged and sturdy simplicity that gives to it an 
enduring charm; it was the very lack of a set 
style that gave to the remodeling of it an unfail- 
ing zest, increased by the very difficulty of the 
experiment that might result in a woeful failure 
or a great success. In dealing with houses such 
as this, it is impossible for the architect to rely on 
any formula or book of rules to direct him in a 
correct restoration. It requires a much deeper 
study and an understanding of the problems that 
confronted the builder in erecting the structure 
and the conditions under which he worked. It is 
then that the spirit of the old house will be mani- 
fest, and its adaptation to modern requirements 
will be but the thought of former years revised 
to meet present needs. 

There are few buildings that can claim a more 
sympathetic handling in their restoration than 
this early, pre-Georgian farmhouse, which is 
called Three Acres. The excellent line of the 

[90] 



THREE ACRES 

wide, gabled roof, broken by a succession of out- 
buildings, forms an unusually attractive picture, 
with the weather-stained shingles softened against 
a background of oak and pine trees. The house 
now faces away from the main road and fronts 
upon a wooded slope that falls sharply down to 
the shores of a picturesque little pond. This is 
partly hidden by dense woods that form a back- 
ground and a windbreak for the house. Formerly 
the public road went along here within a few yards 
of the front of the house, but it has been aban- 
doned for the broader highway in the rear, and 
only the vaguest traces of it remain to-day. 

The building was a two-story, shingled struc- 
ture with an uncompromising squareness about it. 
The wide, gable roof sloped down to the stud of 
the first floor, giving but little room in the cham- 
bers above. It was of the central chimney type. 
In the rear, a small, gable-roofed ell had been 
added, and later still a flat-roofed shed at right 
angles to the ell, or parallel to the main house, 
was built. In still a third addition, a well was 
incorporated in the rear, under a continuation of 
the roof of the shed, and another small outhouse 
in an extension to the side. This seeming con- 
glomeration of roofs in reality made a rather in- 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

teresting and graceful play of line that lifted the 
little house from commonplaceness. 

It was found to be in such good condition on 
the exterior that little repairing was needed, but 
several alterations were made, adding both to the 
character of the building and the comfort of the 
occupants. The original front door opened very 
abruptly upon the stairs, leaving only enough 
hall space to open the door. This was remedied 
by the addition of a small, flat-roofed bay at the 
front, increasing the space in the hall by just that 
much. The old door with its bull's-eyes was 
used in the new position. The step before it 
was protected under the same roof, supported on 
two, small, square posts and a trellis at the sides, 
giving somewhat the effect of an old-time Colonial 
porch and serving not only the material purpose 
of adding room to the interior but of relieving the 
abrupt and uninteresting severity of the front 
lines. In the second story, unusually successful 
dormers were cut in both the back and front pitch 
of the roof. The plan of these dormers deserves 
especial study, as each group is in reality com- 
posed of three separate dormers, enlarging three 
rooms in the interior, but confined under the one 
flat roof. Note, too, how each end of the dormer 

[92] 



THREE ACRES 

extends beyond the middle portion, and how the 
shape of the windows accents the design. '$ 

A new entrance was cut at the side toward the 
lane, and a screened veranda added, with a flat 
roof corresponding to that at the front. Several 
new windows were made necessary by the rear- 
rangements in the interior, but they were placed 
with careful regard to the exterior proportion 
and balance. The glass used in the old windows 
when the house was bought was all the full size of 
the sashes, doubtless having been put there by some 
recent owner and seeming quite out of harmony with 
the details of the house ; consequently they were re- 
placed with small panes, twenty-four to a window, 
and the new windows were all of the casement type. 

The interior of the house with its ugly paint 
and paper, presented a rather hopeless appearance, 
that only a vivid imagination and an unwavering 
enthusiasm could have transformed into the at- 
tractive home that it is to-day. Beginning at 
the front, the cramped little hall was enlarged as 
has already been explained. This made a trifle 
more stair room, and the first seven steps reach- 
ing to the little landing were rebuilt with lower 
risers and broader treads that made ascent to the 
second floor a less arduous matter. 

[93] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

On the left of the hall was the living-room, on 
the right a bedroom, and in the rear of the house 
the room originally designed for the kitchen; 
in each of these was a fireplace opening out of the 
one central chimney. 

The first step in the restoration consisted of 
tearing off the many layers of hideous wall-paper, 
removing the plaster where it was crumbling, and 
scraping the woodwork free from its dingy paint. 
In these operations a number of unexpected dis- 
coveries were made concerning the fine old panel- 
ing and great, hand-hewn beams that had been 
entirely covered up. 

The only change made in the plan of this floor 
was in the corner beyond the living-room and at 
the end of the kitchen. This was originally 
divided into a tiny chamber opening from the 
living-room, and a pantry off the kitchen. These 
were thrown into one, and the openings to living- 
room and kitchen enlarged. The former bed- 
room window was changed to a door leading on 
to the screened veranda, and an attractive group 
of three casement windows replaced the one in 
the rear wall, overlooking the charming vista of 
winding lane and old apple-trees and meadows 
beyond. This little apartment has been treated 

[94] 




A Corner of the Living Room 
THREE ACRES 




The Living Room 




The Dining Room 
THREE ACRSS 



THREE ACRES 

as a sort of anteroom or really a wing of the 
living-room, and wall finish, paint, and furnish- 
ings all harmonize. 

In the living-room the fireplace holds the center 
of attention. It is faced with queer old Spanish 
tiles inserted at intervals in plain cement, the rich 
colorings of which give a quaintly exotic air to 
the fine white woodwork. The moldings about 
the frame and over the mantel are unusually fine 
for this type of house; the support of the heavy 
mantel shelf and the carved dentils in the ceiling 
cornice are especially interesting. At the right 
of the fireplace is a cupboard with an upper and 
lower door, in the old-time fashion; the upper 
one has small, square, mullioned panes of glass 
which disclose some attractive pieces of old china 
and silver. 

In the kitchen, which was turned into the dining- 
room, the old fireplace had been bricked up to 
receive a stovepipe, and the woodwork had been 
plastered over and papered. The fireplace was 
opened up to its original size, large enough to 
accommodate a six-foot log, and in refacing it, the 
old, blackened, fire-burned bricks were used with 
delightful effect. The paneling about it is very 
simple, but the proportions are interesting, and 

[95] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the quaint, double-panel cupboards on each side 
lend the whole an insistent charm. The two, 
great, hand-hewn beams in the ceiling have been 
left exposed, and the fact that they have settled 
a little on their supports, sagging toward one end, 
only adds to the eifect, just as the unevenness of 
a hand-drawn line is more beautiful than the 
accuracy of one ruled. 

These three rooms opening so closely into each 
other have been treated so that there is a har- 
monious and striking vista from every point. 
The walls are covered with a soft, creamy gray, 
and the hangings of Russian crash are of the same 
tone. The color is supplied in fireplaces, rugs, 
books, pictures, and such ornaments. In the 
dining-room, there has been a slight accent of 
blue and rose in rug and table runner and candle- 
shades. In the living-room the deep green of the 
upholstery carries the strongest note. The char- 
acteristically old-time furniture, with a pleasant 
mingling of Dutch and English and American 
motifs of the eighteenth century, has been ar- 
ranged with studied care to preserve the possi- 
bilities of the open vistas from room to room. 

The entrance hall completes a delightful picture 
from the living-room; the soft gray colors of a 

[96] 



THREE ACRES 

lovely Japanese paper blend strikingly with tiny 
curtains of a wonderfully fresh old blue at the 
casement windows. The rag carpet carries this 
same blue up the white stairs to the second floor. 

The rooms on the right of the lower hallway 
have been kept nearly in their original state 
with the addition of fresh paint and attractive 
papers. They form a small suite of a study and 
bedroom, seeming quite apart from the rest of 
the house. 

On the second floor, a refreshing simplicity has 
been observed in the bedrooms. The dormers 
that have been cut in the roof add not only to 
their comfort but provide charming little bays and 
alcoves, giving unexpected opportunities for in- 
teresting furnishings. Quaint, old-time papers 
and hangings and coverlets on the four-poster 
beds, matched in rugs and cushions and candle- 
shades, contrast gaily with the spotless white 
paint. Considerable ingenuity has been necessary 
in planning this floor, as the original rooms were 
so tiny and space so very limited under the long 
slopes of the roof. The dormers gave the much 
needed increase in the size of the chambers, and 
part of the rear one was converted into the bath- 
room. 

[97] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

In the ell and shed at the rear of the house, 
perhaps the most interesting feature of all is 
situated. A step lower than the dining-room 
and reached through swinging French doors of 
glass, is the little kitchen which has been fitted 
up in a most compact way. An additional 
window has been cut at the side to provide both 
light and air, and an outside door gives access to 
the small court on the far side of the house be- 
tween the main building and the rear shed. This 
has been turned into a miniature old-fashioned 
garden, where it is pleasant to sit among the 
flowers. 

Back of the kitchen is the laundry and an old 
well, which has been drained and is now used as 
a cooling cellar, and the wire basket containing 
meats and milk and butter is drawn up and down 
on the old crank. Beyond this, the old wood and 
coal shed has been transformed into the studio. 
Here Mrs. Shaw designs all her beautiful jewelry 
work at the long work-table across the rear under 
the four long windows. Opening from it is a 
tiny little apartment used as an office, and here 
at a quaint desk, the designs for the metal work 
are sketched out, and the correspondence con- 
nected with the business end transacted. 

[981 



THREE ACRES 

In the adaptation of the outbuildings to the 
special and unusual requirements of the owner, 
an excellent example is given to others who have 
individual hobbies such as this to accommodate. 
But throughout the building the needs and the 
personality of the owner have been as carefully if 
not as ostensibly expressed. There has been no 
thought of comfort or of service sacrificed in the 
effort to revive the atmosphere of the past, but 
rather has that very simplicity and straight- 
forwardness been utilized to banish all that might 
complicate entire convenience. The personality 
of the owner has been interwoven into every 
detail, and shows nowhere more strongly than in 
the preservation of all the delightful vagaries and 
unevenness of hand work played upon and mel- 
lowed by time. 



[99] 



CHAPTER IX 

THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

THE prospective house owner generally has 
little or no idea of how to go about designing his 
own home. If he chances to see some other house 
that strikes his fancy, he realizes that it approaches, 
at least in part, what he has in mind. How to 
accomplish his desire, however, he has no definite 
knowledge. He hesitates to call in an architect 
who is a stranger to him and knows nothing of his 
needs and habits and preferences ; he fears that an 
attempt to combine his own ideas with those of 
the architect will result unsatisfactorily to both 
of them. To such a man as this, the remodeled 
farmhouse comes as a boon. From the old house 
he is able to determine what type his home will 
be; no matter how battered and worn it is to 
start with, he can get some impression of the 
possible room space and arrangement by studying 
other old interiors and their relation to each other. 
That is one of the reasons why the movement 
sweeping through the country to-day has become 

[ioo] 




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THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

so extensive. It gives a substantial foundation 
upon which to develop an artistic home under 
one's own supervision. 

When a man purchases a weather-beaten farm- 
house, it is evident that he is up against a real 
problem in remodeling, and the task demands 
plenty of time and a wide-awake, ingenious brain. 
If he consults his friends and neighbors across the 
way, doubtless their opinions differ so materially 
from his own that the result is worse than if he 
had solved the questions in his own way. We all 
have ideals, but it is not always easy to express 
them; they need to be developed in order to be 
made practical and require thought and diligent 
research if they are to be concretely embodied in 
the altered home. Paper and pencil are good 
friends at this stage of the game, and even a rough 
sketch drawn carelessly on the back of an old 
envelope, as an idea occurs, gives subject matter 
for larger schemes and more realistic results. 

Few people who are planning to spend the 
summer months in a new house realize how much 
their comfort depends upon light and space. 
It would be foolish for you to buy an old farm- 
house and make the rooms small and cramped 
in size. You would lose a gre^t part of the advan- 

[101] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

tage of coming to the country to live, the pleasure 
of being as nearly out of doors as possible. Most 
of the old houses were cut up into small rooms, 
for, owing to the limited heating facilities in olden 
days, large rooms would have been freezing in 
winter; accordingly one or two bedrooms were 
invariably crowded into the first floor to receive 
the warmth from the kitchen. But it is almost 
always possible to tear out the partitions between 
some of the rooms and make them into one large 
apartment which can be used for living purposes. 
This can usually be done without weakening the 
structure; the floor above will be found to rest 
upon a great beam, or a new girder can be put 
across. 

* If the stud is low, do not change it, or you will 
spoil the whole atmosphere of the place. A low 
stud and large rooms are good developments, so 
try to achieve them when you are making over 
the house. Have plenty of windows ; in the old 
days, many windows meant a cold house in the 
winter, but if the farmhouse is to be used only as 
a summer home, the cooler the better. If for a 
winter residence also, modern systems of heating 
will counteract the difficulty. Windows of the 
long French type are especially desirable; they 

[102] 



THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

are more adapted to the requirements of country 
life, as they admit abundant light and air and are 
entirely in keeping with the style of the farmhouse. 

The house should represent a unit; the porch 
should be planned so that it leads into the living- 
room, and by throwing open the windows, will 
seem to become part of a large airy room. The 
dining-room should either be part of the living- 
room or open conveniently near. The service 
quarters must immediately adjoin the dining-room. 
If there is other space on the floor which cannot be 
used to increase the comfort of the two main 
rooms, well and good; it may then be devoted 
to whatever purpose you desire. But when the 
removal of partitions will make a place more 
pleasant to live in, it is always wise to make such 
a change. 

We know that there are few of these old 
houses that have not been cut up and divided; 
but the conditions which made that necessary in 
the earlier days have been changed, and for a 
simple country house one large living and dining- 
room is far better than divisions which shut out 
light and air. Many people look at these propo- 
sitions from a limited view-point and do not 
stop to consider the complete idea. We all learn 

[103] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

from houses that we visit what is right and what 
is wrong to do. If we look deeper into the subject 
and go farther afield, we find it pays to carefully 
develop the plan before commencing to rebuild. 
The requirements of elaborate modes of life, 
liveried servants and much entertaining, demand, 
of course, many apartments ; reception-room and 
drawing-room, library and den seem essential in 
the house plan, but for those who come to the 
country to simplify existence, these are not needed. 
In remodeling your house, let three things be 
uppermost in your mind : convenience, comfort, 
and light; if you follow these, you will not go 
far astray. 

Even a very small house need not be devoid of 
these qualities. It may be very tiny and yet 
most attractive and complete in every detail. 
With careful thought and a broad conception of 
the whole, it is quite possible to make a place where 
it is a pleasure to visit and where even the casual 
guest realizes the application of small and inter- 
esting details in making a harmonious whole. 

Do not let your mind wander from the fact that 
the interior is of as much importance, and even 
more, than the exterior, for it is there that we live 
much of the time during the season, and it should 

[104] 



THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

therefore be harmonious and in good taste. The 
development of one room for common family use, 
and the elimination of the shut-up parlor for 
company, have brought about an atmosphere of 
simplicity that goes to make a perfect and livable 
house. 

This one-room idea has been charmingly carried 
out in a small house that has been remodeled for 
a summer home by Mr. Robert Spencer of New 
York and South Yarmouth. It is most attrac- 
tively situated, standing far back from the road, 
with a background of pine trees that give a pic- 
turesque touch to the little cottage. Originally 
it stood on the opposite side of the bay, on the 
shores of Cape Cod at South Dennis, Massachu- 
setts. Its possibilities seemed to the present 
owner worth developing, and he had it "flecked" 
and brought over the water to its present site. 
This was not a hard task to accomplish, as the 
timbers were stanch and in a good state of 
preservation. 

It was a typical fisherman's cottage, with a 
wide gable roof sloping down to the first story 
and four small rooms about a central chimney. 
To meet the needs of the new owner, it required 
considerable enlargement. A two-story building 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

was added at the rear and side, meeting the 
main house only along the corner. Little attempt 
was made to have the two harmonize, for not only 
are the roof lines of widely different types, but 
the frame of one is of white clapboarding and of 
the other weathered shingle. At the angle where 
they join, the roof of the old building has been 
raised to accommodate the higher stud in the new, 
thus making a break in it near the ridge. 

Two dormers have been cut in the main roof 
to give extra room in the second floor ; these are 
flat-roofed and well spaced, with two windows 
occupying the entire front of each. A porch has 
been added across the whole front of the house 
and half of it is roofed over. This breaks 
with the slope of the main roof, but follows 
that of the dormers. A detail which adds much 
to the appearance of the exterior is the simple, 
square-posted fence that surrounds the porch 
and encloses a quaint little garden in the square 
formed by the angle of the two buildings. This 
same detail has been adopted at the side of the 
porch roof in an effective way. This fence, and 
the clapboards and trim of the house, are white, 
and the shutters and shingles are green. 

The front door opens immediately into the liv- 
[106] 





Two Views of the Living Room 
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 





The Attic Chambers 
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 



THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

ing and dining-room which occupies the whole right 
side of the house and opens at the rear on to a 
grassy terrace. A triple window has been cut along 
the side to allow ample light and air. Small 
panes are used in these windows, and the French 
doors have glass of corresponding size. The 
feature of this room is the fine old fireplace at the 
center of the inside wall. It is very simple, with 
slight attempt at ornamentation, but the propor- 
tions are good, and the lines rather unusual. 
Over the fireplace is an old cupboard that used 
to be called a "nightcap closet" from the hos- 
pitable bottle which was kept there to be passed 
around among the men just before retiring. At 
the left is a cupboard with upper and lower doors ; 
in the panels of the former, panes of glass have 
been inserted. This end of the room has been 
treated as the living-room and the opposite end as 
the dining-room. The woodwork is all white, 
and the roughly finished plaster is tinted a deep 
cream. 

Straight stairs lead to the second story along 
the wall at the dining end of the room. Here, 
about the walls, a wide molding has been carried 
over doors and windows, which serves as a plate- 
rail for numerous interesting old family plates 

[107] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

and jugs. Beneath it, in several places, shelves 
have been bracketed to the wall to hold other 
pieces of china. The glass door at the end opens 
on to the terrace, and the paneled door beside it 
communicates with the kitchen and servants' 
quarters in the addition. 

The furnishings in this room admirably accord 
with the building in both age and simplicity. 
The older furniture has been supplemented with 
modern pieces of straightest and most unpreten- 
tious line and character. Clocks, mirrors, pic- 
tures, andirons, and fire-set are family heirlooms. 
The coverings on the floor are large and plain rag 
carpets ; at the windows are simple muslin cur- 
tains, with overhangings of Colonial chintz in soft 
colors harmonizing with the cheerful and sunny 
atmosphere of the room. 

At the left of this room, occupying the other 
side of the house, are two bedrooms. One of them 
is the childrens' own room and has been furnished 
very attractively; fresh white tables and chairs 
harmonize with the older mahogany pieces and 
lend an air of distinctive charm to the apartment. 

The space up-stairs is divided into large and 
small rooms under the eaves. The slope of the 
roof allows room for many built-in drawers and 

[108] 



THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE 

closets, and every inch has been utilized. The 
white paint and the simple white furniture ar- 
ranged with a care and precision that is worthy of 
emulation contribute to make the effect of these 
rooms light and airy and inviting. The Japanese 
crepe or gay cretonne curtains at the windows add 
just the necessary touch of color. 

The lighting fixtures in the house demand 
especial notice, as it is so difficult a matter to 
attain a distinction in them when a house has not 
been wired but must depend upon older methods 
of illumination than electricity or gas. -A number 
of simple candle brackets attaching to the wall 
have been purchased, and these are placed sym- 
metrically in pairs, balancing each other on either 
side of a fireplace or mirror or window. The 
candlesticks for shelf or table have been arranged 
with equal precision, and some are given all the 
more importance by attractive hand-made shades. 
An occasional simple, square, candle lantern 
hangs from the ceiling to contribute to the effect. 
The table and reading lamps have been chosen 
with equal success. 



[109] 



CHAPTER X 

THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

IN planning the remodeling of a farmhouse, 
has it ever occurred to you how much of the ap- 
pearance of the exterior depends upon the archi- 
tecture of verandas and porches ? Not only must 
we give much thought to the alteration of the 
lines of the house which may be required by the 
interior plan, but we must be equally careful when 
it comes to the addition of entirely exterior 
features. 

Modern country life demands plenty of veranda 
room and, whenever possible, sleeping-porches. 
One does not go to the country to sit indoors, 
even if the windows are all thrown open. There 
is nothing that will so materially improve the 
health as outdoor life; tired and jaded nerves 
are soon restored by use of a sleeping-porch, 
where the fresh air can soothe and induce restful 
slumber. In the early days, the porch or ve- 
randa did not exist ; it may be supposed that our 
pioneer ancestors were too busy to enjoy any 

[no] 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

leisurely hours out of doors ; at least, they made 
no provision in connection with their houses for 
such relaxation. 

As the details of the exterior became more 
elaborate, the entrance porch was developed with 
free-standing columns. In time, this assumed 
greater importance, especially in the south, where 
columns the height of the whole building sup- 
ported a roof across its entire front. In the 
north, the veranda was less frequently used, but 
there is occasional authority for both the front 
and the less pretentious back piazza. It is one 
of the additions which are imperative in remodel- 
ing the house, however, and it becomes something 
of a problem because there is no more definite 
authority for it. 

If there is to be simply an entrance porch, 
offering a bit of shelter at the front door for 
stranger or friend, it may have much precedent 
in the porches of Georgian houses. In planning 
this, take into consideration that it should be an 
index of what one will find in the interior ; it should 
be the keynote, as it were, of the entire house. 
Here we may have the same details and the same 
proportions as in the cornice of the roof, or the 
fireplace within. We find many porches that 

[in] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

are sadly out of keeping with the rest of the house 
and seem very carelessly designed. It is far 
better to have none at all than one which is 
insignificant and out of scale ; yet it must not be 
more elaborate than the house itself and tend to 
dwarf the main structure. Few people realize 
how important this feature is and how necessary 
that it should be a satisfactory adjunct to the 
architecture of the whole. It is almost the first 
thing we notice as we approach the house. 
Whether it is well placed and rightly proportioned, 
whether it has a proper overhang, good roof lines, 
and adequately supported cornice, affects to a 
very great extent the style and character of 
the house. 

There were a great many different types of 
porch in the Georgian houses : the simple hood 
with a high-backed settle on either side that was 
commonly used at a side entrance; the gable- 
roofed and flat-roofed, square porch and circu- 
lar, open and partly enclosed, with round and oval 
windows at the sides, were all developed to high 
perfection. The simple, Doric column, plain or 
fluted, with corresponding pilasters or * three- 
fourths round against the house, was used on 
many of the porches; but the Ionic and Corin- 

[112] 




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The Hallway 
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

thian capitals are more elaborate than is appro- 
priate for the simplicity of a farmhouse. From 
the infinite number of models which can be found, 
it should be a comparatively easy matter to con- 
struct an entrance porch, utilizing the details 
found in the house. 

A veranda demands somewhat different manner 
of procedure. First it is necessary to decide 
where it shall be put. Where will it receive the 
best air and the least sun ? It must, presumably, 
open from or adjacent to the living-room and yet be 
so placed that its roof will not cut off too much 
light. If the house is uncomfortably near the 
highway or neighbors, the matter of privacy 
cannot be neglected, and a thought may well be 
given to the outlook from the piazza. Let it 
enjoy any advantage of a fine view or a picturesque 
garden that may be compatible with its other 
requirements. Thus it may be at the front, at 
either or both sides, or in the rear. At the side 
of the ordinary, gable-roofed house, the roof of 
the veranda should as a rule be flat. If it is 
possible to continue the roof line of the house to 
include that of the porch, by all means let it be 
done; the unbroken sweep will usually be found 
excellent. At some angles it may seem too long 

[113] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

and severe; then it is often possible to put a 
slight "kick" in it, especially if there is anything 
of the Dutch type about the building. 

The floor of the porch in farmhouses should be 
low ; it may be on a level with that of the house, 
or a step below it. It is well to let the under- 
pinning be a continuation of that of the house, 
and it may then be covered with brick or tile, or 
the conventional boards. The columns or posts 
which support the roof are a stumbling block for 
many remodelers. These should closely copy the 
entrance porch, if there is one; even if it be no 
more than a flat semblance of a pilaster about 
the frame of the door, it will supply the correct 
motive. Lacking this, there will undoubtedly 
be some detail in the interior which can be magni- 
fied to the right proportion for the exterior, the 
upright of a mantel or the frame of a door. For 
a house which can boast no such source of sugges- 
tion, a straight, square post with a simple mold- 
ing would be the solution. The cornice should 
follow the detail of the entrance door or the house 
cornice ; and it is eifective and increases the appar- 
ent unity to repeat the decoration of the one on 
the other. 

The rails and balusters of old houses were 
t4] 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

extremely simple and should be kept so in the 
remodeling. In the very early examples, the 
balusters were square and spaced far apart ; later 
both square and turned balusters were used, and 
they were spaced twice their width. The design 
for these can often be taken from the stairs in the 
interior of the house. It is the modern tendency 
to use no railing about verandas, particularly 
when they are low or when they are screened in. 
Some of the flat-roofed type had a railing around 
the roof, and an open-air porch was thus made 
for the second story. 

Sometimes this porch can be utilized as a sleep- 
ing-porch on the second floor. This feature, 
while of course entirely foreign to the farmhouse, 
has become as much a necessity in many families 
as the open-air living-room, and it is therefore 
logical to introduce it where possible to do so with- 
out destroying the lines of the building. It is 
better, however, to do without it than to add it 
in such a way that it will seem an afterthought 
and not really incorporated in the structure. 
Often it can be placed in a wide dormer cut in the 
slope of the roof; sometimes the roof line can be 
extended over the roof of the sleeping-porch, or 
again it may be merely a room with the walls 

[US! 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

largely cut away. Each remodeler will have his 
own problem in connection with this, and by 
ingenuity and careful study must work it out to 
his own satisfaction. Remember always that 
the integral simplicity of the building must not 
be disturbed, and that whether it be sleeping- 
porch, veranda, or entrance portico, it must seem 
always a part of the original building, as if it were 
the conception of the master craftsman who 
erected the first timbers. 

Most gratifying results along this line are shown 
in an old farmhouse at Medfield, Massachusetts, 
which was built in 1755. Like many other old 
houses, this had fallen into decay and stood neg- 
lected and unoccupied by the side of the road 
while the extensive grounds lay unkempt and 
desolate. But Mr. Davenport Brown recognized 
in it a house that could be made to serve most 
acceptably as the foundation of his summer home. 

It is of the Georgian type, built with the hall 
and straight flight of stairs as the axis. There are 
two main chimneys opening into four fireplaces 
on the first floor. A service wing has been added 
at the left, parallel with the main building, and 
half its width. Back of that, an ell of equal size 
extends at right angles. Both of these are two 

[116] 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

storied, but the upper stud is somewhat lower 
than in the main building, thus allowing it to re- 
tain its predominance in the design. 

The main part is given further importance 
by the dignified entrance porch. Two three- 
fourths round and two free-standing, fluted, 
Doric columns are used, supporting a cornice 
and a gabled roof, the details of which repeat 
those in the cornice of the house. A rather 
unusual type of scalloped dentation lends addi- 
tional interest. The frame about the door is 
arched over, and there are side lights and an 
overhead fanlight in a simple style that carries out 
the Colonial tradition. 

The hall leads past the stairs and through an 
open doorway to the rear of the house, where there 
is another entrance, repeating the design of the 
front one. This is some distance from the rear 
wall of the house, and consequently there is a 
small, arched-over portico formed within the 
lines of the building. The walls of this are pan- 
eled, and on each side is a built-in seat. The floor 
is tiled, and the woodwork painted white. 

At each end of the main part of the building is 
a flat-roofed veranda carrying out the details of 
the entrance porch in column and cornice. The 

I "7] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

same dentil ornamentation that appears on the 
cornice of the house is used here in smaller size, 
as on the entrance porch. Around the edges of 
the flat roofs, boxes filled with blooming plants 
and vines form an original and most attractive 
method of softening the sharp lines and finish of 
the house. The veranda on the right side over- 
looking the wide lawns and gardens is used largely 
as the outdoor living-room and is screened in. 
The spacing of the bars and framework of the 
screening is well proportioned and adds not a little 
to the decoration. The floor of the veranda is 
edged with brick and paved in the center with 
square tiles which slope toward a drain at one 
side. This wing of the living-room has been com- 
fortably furnished with canvas hammocks and 
Chinese grass chairs and stools, and even a sand- 
box for the children finds room here. 

In the central hall, the details carry out the 
character of the old period carefully. There is a 
white unpaneled wainscot carved around the 
walls and up the stairs, with a similar treatment in 
the second-floor hall. The stairs are wide, with 
white risers and mahogany treads, and the hand- 
rail is mahogany supported on white, turned 
balusters and a mahogany newel post. The 

[118] 




The Sun-Parlor or Out-door Nursery 




The Library 
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 





Two of the Chambers 
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

upper walls are papered in a gray landscape paper, 
and the furnishings consist of a pair of Sheraton 
card tables. 

At the right of the hall, the two rooms have 
been combined into a living-room by cutting 
double arches on either side of the fireplaces 
which open from the back and front of the chim- 
ney. The furnishings are especially interesting 
here, as there are a number of rare and beautiful 
pieces. The mantel mirror over the front fire- 
place is a fine example of American workmanship. 
The mahogany frame divides its length into three 
sections, and it is ornamented with carved and 
gilded husk festoons ; the scroll top is surmounted 
with a gilt spread eagle. In front of the fire there 
is a beautiful little Sheraton fire-screen. Chairs 
and tables are equally interesting ; there is an old 
"comb-back" chair and an upholstered "Martha 
Washington" chair, as well as more modern easy 
chairs and davenports. The upholstery and cur- 
tains are of small-patterned, Colonial fabrics 
that carry out the spirit of the room. In the 
back part of this room, a large double window has 
been cut, looking out over the gardens and the 
grounds. Underneath it is a most attractive 
window-seat suggestive of an old-time settle, and 

[119] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

on each side low book-shelves extend around the 
whole end of the room. 

The dining-room is situated at the left of the 
hallway. The fireplace and paneling hold the 
attention in this room. The woodwork is very 
simple but well proportioned, and on either 
side of the mantel are narrow, built-in, china 
closets with small, leaded, diamond panes in 
both upper and lower parts of the door and even 
in a transom over it. The walls above the un- 
paneled wainscot are painted white and divided 
into simple, large panels with narrow moldings. 
The furniture in this room is suggestive of the 
early part of the nineteenth century, with the 
exception of the Queen Anne type of chair. Over 
the heavy and massive sideboard is a long gilt mir- 
ror of the Empire "banister" type; between the 
two side windows is a gilt, convex girandole with 
three branching candlesticks on each side. On the 
mantel is a fine example of a Willard shelf clock, 
and on each side of it are tall mahogany candlesticks 
with the old-fashioned wind glasses. The over- 
curtains at the windows are a soft rose damask; 
they hang from gilded cornices and are caught back 
on gilded rosettes, the style of draping which is 
carried out in all the main rooms of the house. 

[120] 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

The service wing opens from the left of the din- 
ing-room, and the den, which is back of it, with a 
fireplace on the opposite side of the same chimney, 
is reached from the rear of the hall. 

At the head of the stairs at the right, one enters 
the bright and sunny nursery. Here the fireplace 
is very simple and has no overmantel. The wood- 
work is white, and a broad molding divides the 
upper part of the wall. Below is a quaint paper 
picturing Mother Goose scenes which the children 
never tire of studying. The furniture is mainly 
white, and the little chairs and tables in child's 
size are decorated in peasant fashion with painted 
flowers and lines of color. 

There are two other bedrooms in the main part 
of the house and each has an open fireplace. The 
furnishings are simple and old-fashioned in char- 
acter, retaining the Colonial atmosphere admi- 
rably. In one room there is a Field bedstead of 
English make, dating about 1780, showing reeded 
posts and a curved canopy top. The chairs and 
the little night stand at the side of the bed are 
in close harmony with the period of its design. 
In the other chamber are twin beds which are 
modern reproductions of four-posters, but other 
furnishings retain the distinctive atmosphere of age. 

[121] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Over one bureau there is a fine mirror with the 
Georgian eagle ornamentation; in keeping with 
it are the old fireside wing chair and a side chair 
of Sheraton type. 

The most interesting bedroom, perhaps, is 
in the wing of the house, where Hannah Adams, 
the first American authoress, was born. This is 
reached by a cross hall which leads from the main 
one, and gives access to baths and rear stairs 
and another tiny bedroom. Although the old 
fireplace has been remodeled, the aspect of the 
room is much the same as when the house was 
built. The woodwork here is all dark, and the 
hand-hewn rafters and cross beams are exposed 
in the ceiling. An unusual wall-paper in black 
and gay colors forms an interesting background 
for the four-poster and other old furnishings. 
An old batten door with a quaint little window in 
the center strip leads from this room to the cham- 
bers in the service ell. 

Much of the house has been restored under the 
direction of the architect, Mr. John Pickering 
Putnam of Boston, and to him the credit for its 
successful remodeling must be largely given. 
The planning and laying out of the grounds about 
the house, however, are the work of the owner, 

[122] 



THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 

who has spared no pains to make a harmonious 
setting for his home. 

Between the house and the road is a row of 
great overshadowing elms that make a delightful 
setting for the red and white of the house. The 
drive sweeps around these trees to the stable on 
the left and is separated from the house and the 
lawns by white palings in a simple Colonial pat- 
tern, having fine, carved posts surmounted by 
balls. The fence stops at either side of the front 
to allow wide space for a heavy embankment of 
conifers. Somewhat back of this fence, along 
the whole length of the lawn, is a second lower 
one, with posts of the same height. This marks 
the boundary of the wide lawn and forms a charm- 
ing background for an old-fashioned hardy border 
that extends all the way to a swimming-pool and 
pergolas at the far end. Immediately behind the 
house is the flower garden, from which all the 
blossoms used to decorate the house are cut; 
this is screened by a white trellis and pergola, 
carrying out some of the details of the entrance 
porches and verandas. 



[123] 



CHAPTER XI 

THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

A VERY interesting feature in an old farmhouse 
is the fireplace, which varies in size with the age 
of the house ; the oldest ones are large, with cavern- 
ous mouths, since they were the only means of 
heating the house. These are capable of holding 
a ten-foot log, for it must be remembered that at 
that period of our country's history the woods 
grew at the very door. 

A few of these old fireplaces are found to-day, 
principally in the old kitchens or living-rooms, 
although occasionally we see an old house which 
has them in almost every room. There is a 
great variety in their design as well as size, some 
being very simple and framed in wood, while 
others show tiling ; occasionally we find elaborate 
carving, but this is in the better class building 
rather than in the simple little farmhouse. These 
details denote the different periods and also the 
wealth of the former owner. 

With the introduction of stoves, many fireplaces 

[124] 




The Nursery 




The Service Wing 
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE 





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THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

were bricked in to accommodate an air-tight 
stove which gave more heat and saved fuel. One 
unaccustomed to the features of an old farmhouse 
would infer a lack of fireplaces. The removal of 
brick and mortar, however, reveals the large, 
cavernous hearth which was often three feet deep 
and sometimes showed a second bricking in, to 
make it smaller. Often in the narrowing of the 
fireplace, tiles are used, generally Dutch, which are 
blue and white in coloring. Occasionally in open- 
ing up these fireplaces, one comes across rare old 
andirons that were considered of too little value to 
be removed ; old cranes and kettles are also found, of 
the type common in the days of our early ancestors. 

It must be remembered that the chimneys of 
these old houses were often six feet square and 
had many fireplaces opening from them. It was 
the central feature of the house, around which 
the rooms were built. The earliest chimneys 
were daubed in clay, and in the masonry oak 
timbers were often used. In remodeling a house 
many people tear down these old chimneys for 
the space which may be converted into closet 
use and alcoves, making a smaller chimney do 
service. 

In the olden times, when the first chimneys 

["SJ 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

were erected, they were so carefully built that 
they were less liable to smoke than the smaller 
ones, so that it is better to let the old one remain 
if possible. Brick was generally used in the con- 
struction, although sometimes we find stone. 
It was not the finished brick of to-day but rough 
and unfaced. This was not true, however, of 
those which formed a part of cargoes from 
abroad, more especially those brought from Hol- 
land. The use of stone was not popular, as it was 
apt to chip when brought in contact with the 
heat ; this is also true of the hearthstones, where 
the flagging became rough and most unsatisfac- 
tory. 

The fireback was a feature of some of the old 
fireplaces. The earliest of these made in our 
country were cast in Saugus, Massachusetts, and 
some were most elaborate in design. Often coats- 
of-arms and initials were worked out in their 
construction. In addition to the brick and stone, 
soapstone facings were sometimes shown, but 
seldom do we come across good carving. 

The crane was a feature of the fireplace, and 
on it were hung the pothooks from which depended 
the iron and brass pots in which food was cooked. 
In one side of the bricks, just at the left of the 

[126] 



THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

fireplace, was often a large brick oven with an 
iron door, and here on baking days roaring wood 
fires were kindled to heat the bricks before the 
weekly baking was placed within. Examination 
of these old ovens will be very apt to reveal the 
age of the house. 

In the remodeling it is well to leave the fire- 
places much as they stand, with the exception of 
bricking them in, for the old ones allowed too 
much air to come down the chimney, and at the 
present high price of wood, we are not able to 
indulge in the ten-foot logs that were in evidence 
in our grandmothers' time. 

A house with many fireplaces that stands back 
from the winding country road on the border line 
between Medfield and Walpole in Massachusetts 
was chosen for a summer home by Charles E. 
Inches. It is shaded now as it was long ago by 
large, old elms whose widespreading branches 
seem to add a note of hospitality to this most 
attractive estate. Possibly there are better exam- 
ples of the restored farmhouse than this one found 
at Medfield, but it is very picturesque, not only in 
type but in surroundings. It stands near a turn of 
the road, where it was erected, in 1652, situated in 
a sheltered glen and protected from cold winds. 

[127] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

At that time it was a small and unpretentious 
building about twenty feet long and showing in 
the interior fine examples of hand-hewn timbers. 
Even in its dilapidated state it was most attrac- 
tive, with its many fireplaces and old woodwork. 
This particular house has two values, the one re- 
lating to its historical record and the other to 
its old-time construction. Through two centuries 
this little farmhouse had been the home of the 
Adams family, a branch that was near in kin to 
the presidential line of Adams who lived at Quincy, 
Massachusetts. 

At the time of its building, a stream wound in 
and out through the meadow land that was a 
part of the property. It was such a large stream 
that it afforded sufficient power to run an old mill 
that originally stood on the estate and which for 
many years ground the neighbors' grain. On a 
ridge opposite the house, worn stone steps lead 
up through pastures to a sturdy oak which stands 
nearly opposite the front of the house and is 
known in history as the "whipping tree." Here, 
in Colonial days, wrong-doers were tied to be 
whipped. Just before we reach the stone wall, 
which was laid probably by the slaves held by 
the landowner of that period, we find an old 

[128] 



THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

mounting-block. On the side of one of the stones 
are the figures 1652 ; and it was from this block 
that many a Colonial dame mounted to her pillion 
to ride in slow and dignified style behind her 
worthy squire. Even in those days the grounds 
were very extensive and reached for many acres. 
These to-day have been reclaimed and laid down 
to grass land and garden. 

Half way between the house and the tennis 
court which defines the estate is a wonderful old 
garden which has been designed not so much for 
show purposes as to supply flowers all through 
the season. This is not the only garden on the 
place, for back of it is the vegetable garden and 
the old-fashioned one. The dividing line between 
the two is a row of stately trees which hide the 
former from view at the front of the house. 
Rows of apple-trees, many of which were on the 
estate when it was first purchased, remnants of 
the original orchard, surround in part the tennis 
court, behind which is a swimming pool which is 
in frequent use. This is about twenty-five feet 
long and twelve wide, cemented to a depth of 
seven feet; with its background of tall poplars 
it is very artistic and lends itself to all sorts of 
water contests. 

[129] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

During the latter part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, new life came to the old house. It had 
stood for years, weather-beaten and old, guarding 
the family name. While the outside was very 
attractive and in tolerably good repair, it was the 
interior that appealed especially. There was 
beautiful old wainscoting and paneling of wide 
boards, some of which was split from logs at least 
thirty inches in width. Great reverence was 
paid by the owner to the original structure, partic- 
ularly to the old kitchen with its large, brick 
fireplace and chimney which was restored to its 
early beauty. 

Sagging plaster was removed, and underneath 
were found well-preserved, hand-hewn beams and 
rafters. These were carefully cleaned and consid- 
ered of such great beauty that they were left 
exposed as far as possible, more especially those 
which showed the sign of the adze. The walls, 
which had been previously neglected, were stripped 
of wall-papers which were in some places ten 
thicknesses deep. In removing one of these, 
a wonderfully fine landscape paper was discovered, 
and although every attempt was made to save it, 
it was too far defaced. Under the paper was a 
wide paneling of white pine, so good that it needed 

[130] 




X 

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5 



THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

only a slight restoration. In the opening of the 
fireplace the crane, pothook, and hangers were 
found to be intact, while many pieces of ancestral 
pewter and copper were polished and placed in 
proper position on the wide, receding chimney. 
This was to give it the look of the olden days, 
when pewter was used for the table. There 
was no bricking in of this old fireplace, for it was 
considered such a wonderful example that it was 
left in its original state. The old flint-lock that 
did service in the early war was hung over the 
fireplace, while from the chimney hook the old-time 
kettles were swung much as they did in the days 
when they were used for cooking purposes. The 
old brick oven used by the Adams family was not 
removed, and at one side of the fireplace a long 
braid of corn was hung in conformity with the 
custom of that period. The hand-hewn rafters 
and beams have been left intact in this room, as 
has the old woodwork, so that the kitchen, now 
used as a den, is an exact reproduction of the 
original room. It is the most interesting apart- 
ment in the house, being situated at the right of 
the entrance and furnished with old family heir- 
looms, including five rare slat-back chairs, a rush- 
bottomed rocking-chair, and a settle of the same 

[131] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

period. Even the wide boards that were used in the 
original flooring have been retained, and the old 
brick hearth, showing wide bricks such as are never 
found in modern residences. To meet present re- 
quirements, the cellar was cemented, and a furnace 
added, in order that the occupants need not 
depend entirely on the fireplaces for heat. 

In the hallway, the stairway, following the 
lines of many Colonial houses, rises at one side. 
Here the wall-paper is wonderfully preserved, 
being in the old colors of yellow and white and of 
a very old design. It was made in England over 
a century ago and gives an appropriate atmosphere 
to the entrance of the attractive old home. 

. The living-room, which is spacious and com- 
fortable, is at the right just before you enter the 
den. The woodwork has been painted white, 
following the Colonial idea, while old-fashioned, 
diamond-paned windows have been substituted 
for the original ones. Here, as throughout all 
the house, one comes unexpectedly upon groups 
of shelves filled with books. There are built-in 
cupboards that provide places for the wonderful 
collection of books, many of which are rare editions, 
owned by the present occupants. Like every 
room in the house, this shows several tables of 

[132] 



THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

unusually fine design, a handsome side-wing chair, 
and a few other choice pieces. The great open 
fireplace with its Colonial accessories lends much 
to the hominess of this room. 

At the left of the hallway is the large and spa- 
cious dining-room, which is in reality three rooms 
opened into one, the partitions showing in the 
beamed ceilings. The walls are finished in green 
textile and are left unornamented with the excep- 
tion of one or two choice pictures. There was 
a method in the construction of this room which 
was planned for unbroken spaces to bring out to 
advantage the lines of the beautiful old side- 
board. Then, too, the space shows off the 
lines of the rush-bottomed chairs that are used 
for dining-chairs. The mantel, framed in white 
wood, is hung with rare porringers, ranging from 
large to baby size. There is a restful atmosphere 
about this room, that, combined with its perfect 
setting, is most refreshing. At the farther end 
of the room, French doors open upon the sun par- 
lor which is used during the summer months for a 
breakfast-room. This overlooks the garden. 

The bedrooms up-stairs are large and airy, each 
one of them being carefully furnished with Colonial 
pieces which include four-posters, high and low- 

[133] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

boys as well as quaint, old-time chests of drawers 
that can do service as bureaus, or as storage space 
for extra blankets, hangings, or rugs. 

The floors throughout the entire house are of 
hard wood, many of them being the original ones 
that were laid when the house was built. Rare old 
Chippendale, Sheraton, and Hepplewhite chairs 
are used in the furnishings, while hand-woven 
rugs cover the floors. The windows are screened 
by chintz hangings of bright colors and gay 
designs, and the whole house presents a sunny, 
restful atmosphere. 

At the rear of the house an ell has been added 
where the new kitchen with all modern conven- 
iences, pantries, servants' dining and sitting rooms 
are found. Thus while the exterior features 
of the old house have been carefully preserved, 
the addition of the ell gives comfort and conven- 
ience to the new building. 

Shrubbery has been planted around the house, 
and a veranda thrown out; window-boxes filled 
with brilliantly blossoming plants add a bit of 
color to the remodeled farmhouse which is painted 
red with white trim. Velvety lawns have re- 
placed the old-time farming lands, and the plant- 
ing of trees has done much to add to the pictur- 

[134] 




The Hall and Stairway 




The Living Room 
THE CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 




UJ 

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THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE 

esqueness of this estate. The grounds themselves 
are extensive, covering forty-five acres, and the 
natural beauties are unusually varied. Broad 
stretches of fields and hills intersected with trees 
make a most appropriate setting for the old Adams 
homestead. 



[135] 



CHAPTER XII 

THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

IT was a staircase that was responsible for the 
remodeling of one house which had no other 
unusual feature. It was designed by a village car- 
penter whose object was four walls and a shelter 
rather than architectural beauty. The structure 
was so simple and unobtrusive that it did not 
arouse any enthusiasm in the heart of the archi- 
tect who examined it, for it presented no chance 
to show his ability in its remodeling. It was the 
kind of a farmhouse that one would find in almost 
any suburban town, built without any pretensions, 
its only good feature being the staircase which 
saved it from passing into oblivion and caused it 
to be remodeled into a charming, all-the-year-round 
home. 

It had been unoccupied for a long period and 
with exterior weather-beaten and interior unin- 
habitable, it presented a forlorn appearance, re- 
pelling to most would-be purchasers. It stood 
by the side of a traveled road and in its best days 

[136] 



THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

was occupied by a farmer and his family who cared 
more for the barn adjoining the house than they 
did for the farmhouse itself. 

The estate was a large one that had been 
neglected and allowed to run down until weeds 
and rank grass were so intermingled that it seemed 
a discouraging task to bring it back into a good 
state of cultivation. Adjoining the house, and 
connected with it by a shed, was a large barn with 
sagging roof and so dilapidated that it seemed 
past restoring. Across the front, defining the 
estate, was once a neat paling fence that had been 
torn down until only a small portion remained. 

Many acres of the estate were meadow-land 
which swept to the horizon of trees, yet the once 
fine apple orchard, though sadly in need of pruning, 
showed promise, and there were possibilities in 
the whole estate that needed only attention 
and development to make them profitable. There 
had been no one to care for the old house, and it 
stood discouraged by the roadside awaiting a 
sympathetic owner. 

It was in this condition when first seen by Mr. 
Charles Martin Loeffler, whose experienced eye 
discerned its possibilities. It is the wise man 
who fits his house to his grounds and who in the 

[1371 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

general scheme considers its surroundings. The 
grass land, the garden, the orchards, the fencing 
of the estate, each one of which demands separate 
treatment, should be so arranged that they will 
be profitable in the end. The new owner realized 
this and also that he could not be too careful in 
combining house and garden so that they would 
make a harmonious whole. 

The location was ideal, quiet and retired and 
exactly what had been most desired, so the 
remodeling was placed in the hands of a careful 
architect, who, after thoroughly considering the 
situation, decided it could not be done. It was 
then that Mr. Loeffler took the matter into his 
own hands, drawing exact plans of what was 
necessary to achieve the desired result, and it 
was under his personal direction that the workmen 
began to remodel the unattractive little cottage. 
It was borne in mind that even the addition of 
a porch or veranda must be carefully considered 
to avoid confusion of architecture so that the 
house itself, when finished, should follow a single 
idea and not a composite mass of details that were 
entirely out of place and in bad taste. It was 
realized that no house, no matter how situated, 
should have discordant surroundings. Out-build- 

[1381 




O 

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THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

ings should not be allowed to mar the symmetry 
of the house and should be removed so that they 
would not be an eyesore but in keeping with the 
general plan. 

The house itself, however, demanded attention 
first; it was very small, with a pitched roof in 
the upper story and a long ell connecting it with 
the farm buildings. The exterior was left prac- 
tically as when first purchased, with the excep- 
tion of a small and well-planned porch at the 
front, a long ell for servants' quarters, and a 
wide veranda at the rear that extended the entire 
length of the house. In the porch settles were 
added on either side which help to give the house an 
air of dignity and invite the guest to rest and 
enjoy the beautiful scenery. 

The screened-5n veranda at the back is used as 
an out-of-doors living-room. It is wide, carpeted 
with rugs, and furnished with simple but sub- 
stantial pieces. It is a most comfortable place, 
where charming views and wonderful vistas can 
be enjoyed, for beyond lie the old orchard with 
the meadows between and a background of finger- 
pointed pines that seemingly melt into the blue 
of the sky. Trellises were built on the garden 
side of the house to carry vines, but this was 

[>39l 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

after the house had been given a coat of white 
paint and the blinds painted green. Over the; 
veranda a balcony was built which can be used 
for outdoor sleeping purposes if desired. The 
picket fence was restored and painted white 
to match the coloring of the house, and a stone 
wall was built at the farther end to enclose the 
garden ; on the outside wild shrubs were planted 
to give a note of color to the gray stone. The 
old trees, pruned, took on a new life and are now 
in a most flourishing condition ; across the entire 
front, as a partial screening, silver-leafed poplars 
were planted. The farm lands were reclaimed, 
new trees planted in the old apple orchard, and 
at the side of the house an attractive garden 
was laid out with a background of apple-trees. 
It was a small garden, only about an eighth of 
an acre in size, and filled with old-fashioned flowers 
to make it harmonize with the period in which 
the house was built. A single path divides it 
in two, and its color schemes have been given 
careful study. 

At one side of the garden a rustic pergola has 
been built with a central path of grass, and over 
this a grapevine has been trained which makes 
it a restful, shady place in summer, while in early 

[140] 



THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

fall the vines are loaded with great clusters of 
purple grapes. Everywhere surrounding the gar- 
den are stretches of green lawns that prove a fitting 
setting to the bright blossoms in the trim and well- 
kept beds. The fields beyond have been brought 
back to a good state of cultivation and present 
a beautiful green tract beyond which stretch rich 
meadows with waving grass where flit the bobo- 
link and the red-winged blackbird. In' the trees 
around the house orioles and robins nest, while 
everywhere the old apple-trees grow, many of them 
gnarled and twisted with age. In the early fall, 
loaded with fruit, they^ form an attractive color 
note of red and yellow in the landscape. Great 
care has been taken to remove the branches of 
the old trees in order to afford attractive vistas. 
This gives a landscape picture carefully planned 
and creates a delightful feeling of restfulness and 
a sense of relief from the bustle of city life. 

Over the porch has been built a lattice to be 
covered eventually with rambler roses, and in 
order to obtain more light, clusters of windows 
have been let in on either side of the front door. 

The interior as well as the exterior has been 
carefully planned with a regard to light and 
views. One enters the house through the little 

[141] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

porch and finds himself in a spacious hallway 
which extends to the living-room. The staircase 
is at the right of the entrance. It is not a primi- 
tive affair of the ladder type which is the earliest 
on record ; neither is it steep with flat treads, 
high risers and molded box stringers, but the 
kind that shows simple posts and rail with plain 
balusters. It is of the box stringer type and has 
no carving in either post or balusters; it is 
perfectly straight and leads by easy treads to the 
second-story floor. 

The dining-room is at the left of the hallway 
and is a room built for comfort and for every- 
day life, showing plenty of windows. A feature is 
the great, open fireplace and the bricked chimney- 
breast, with small closets at one side. The wood- 
work in this room is the same that was in the 
house when it was discovered by Mr. Loeffler 
and, cleaned and treated to a coat of paint, is 
most attractive. The wide board floor has been 
retained and stained dark to bring out the color 
schemes of the rugs. 

This room leads directly into the living-room 
which extends entirely across the house and is 
also entered from the hallway. Its windows 
face the green fields studded with trees and also 

[142] 




Two Views of the Living Room 
THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE 




The Dining Room 




The Music Room in the Studio Building 
THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE 



THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

overlook the old-fashioned garden which is near 
enough to the house so that every summer breeze 
wafts the perfume of its flowers to the occupants. 
A central feature is a bricked-in fireplace that has 
been built into the room. Instead of plastering, 
the old oaken cross beams have been left in their 
original state, and the room is finished with a 
wainscot painted white, above which is a wall 
covering of Japanese grass-cloth. Bookcases form 
an important furnishing of this room which also 
contains many pieces of antique furniture. It is 
a cheerful, homelike apartment, into which the sun 
shines practically all day long. Through large 
French windows one steps from the living-room 
on to the veranda. The second story is devoted 
to chambers and bath. 

Its location has a distinctive charm, as it is 
not too near the city or too far away from 
neighbors. It is well adapted for outdoor living, 
with its wide, inviting veranda and the side garden 
where bloom the stately phlox, the gaudy poppies, 
and the bright-hued marigold. 

As time went on, the house grew too small for 
the owner's needs, and so another house just 
across the way that had passed its prime and 
stood desolate and deserted was also purchased 

[143] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

and remodeled into a studio, one room expressly 
designed for Mr. Loeffler's work, large and 
commodious with high, vaulted ceiling. Here, 
too, a veranda was built across one end that can 
be used if need be for an outdoor living-room. 
It is shaded by many trees, more especially some 
fine old elms whose graceful branches shadow the 
house, while a stretch of lawn extends to the 
street. Across the front a paling fence corre- 
sponding in style to that across the street was 
built, entrance being through a swinging gate 
that leads directly to the outside porch. This 
house shows less remodeling than the first one; 
it is principally in the interior that changes have 
been made. The whole front of the house is made 
into a music-room of unusual type, being hung 
with pictures of the old masters. Here the 
second-story flooring has been removed, and the 
ceiling vaulted and sheathed, in order to secure 
acoustic properties. 

A large chimney has been introduced into the 
inner wall, with brick mantel and chimney breast, 
and big enough to hold a six-foot log. The 
floors are of polished hardwood, and the orna- 
mentation shows Chinese ships hung upon the 
walls, an interesting feature for interior decora- 

[144] 



THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE 

tion. The room is entered through French win- 
dows that lead on to the outside porch. 

In addition to the music-room, this house is 
also used for the caretaker and week-end guests. 
The long ell at one side is used for the former, 
while at the back of the music-room several rooms 
are fitted up for the use of guests, thus solving 
a problem that is to-day vexing the minds of 
many a house owner, more especially in subur- 
ban towns. 

There is about the whole place a restfulness 
that has been achieved by careful planning and 
attention to details. There is no part of the 
estate where one may wander without coming 
upon picturesque bits of landscape, that while 
apparently in their natural state, yet are restored 
and preserved with a true appreciation of nature. 
This estate is a lesson in reclaiming and remodeling 
that cannot fail to be instructive to all home build- 
ers. It goes to show that forethought and in- 
genuity can create a comfortable and inviting 
home in the midst of desolation, and transform 
an old dilapidated cottage into a charming and 
picturesque abode. 



[1451 



CHAPTER XIII 

LITTLE ORCHARD 

THE old farmhouse can well be copied as a 
type for the modern summer home, for its lines 
are excellent, and its design is often so striking 
that it lends itself to easy reproduction. To the 
house owner of to-day it may seem a little strange 
that, with the trend of modern improvements, 
the old houses should be used for this purpose, 
and the architecture of the master builders of 
long ago shown preference over that of modern 
architects who have given their life to this subject. 

The builders and designers of old houses had to 
depend on their own ideas or possibly on a few 
designs that were sent over in the cumbersome 
ships that plied between England and the new 
country, the work of Sir Christopher Wren, 
one of the most celebrated architects of his day. 

There are no more satisfactory details of house 
construction than we find in these old houses, 
where fireplaces, doors, porches, and carving 
show individuality. These ideas, modified and 

[146] 



LITTLE ORCHARD 

improved upon, are found in many a twentieth- 
century home, lending a dignity and charm that 
would otherwise be lacking. 

If you are remodeling an old house and wish 
to change a fireplace that is unsatisfactory or a 
stairway that is not artistic in design, do not intro- 
duce modern ideas, but rather seek for an old 
house that is being torn down and from it take 
bits that will satisfactorily fit into the work of 
remodeling. It is not a hard matter to find de- 
tails of this kind, for many an old farmhouse has 
been neglected so long that it is past redemption, 
and it is the blending of the old with the old that 
does much to keep distinctive the period that you 
are seeking to preserve. 

Sometimes the house has been badly mutilated, 
often to such an extent that its best features are 
disguised, and it is a serious problem to eliminate 
the wrong ideas and duplicate the original. The 
old craftsmen before Colonial times were apt to 
build houses along certain lines which often failed 
to bring proper results; details varied and some- 
times were incongruous with the type of the house. 
The first houses were generally one-roomed; 
later, other rooms like units were gathered around 
it, and the result in some cases was the appear- 

[i47l 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ance of a lean-to. Later on came the ell, and, 
to save steps, chambers were designed on the lower 
floor, leading off the main rooms of the houses. 
Naturally in houses of this kind the largest 
room was the kitchen, for this was the family 
living-room, more especially during the cold 
weather. 

We will find as we examine an old farmhouse 
that the dominant portion of the building was the 
first floor, and that the chambers were adapted 
to the lower-story plan. These were not always 
satisfactory, as little or no care was given to the 
arrangement of the rooms, and in many houses 
closets were little considered. The partitions 
between these rooms were not double, like those 
found to-day, but were made of matched board 
and accommodated themselves to the frame- 
work. Later on plastering came into vogue and 
this made the rooms warmer and much more 
habitable. 

The windows were generally spaced carefully 
and were in harmony with the front door, making 
an attractive exterior. The walls were of wood, 
often with a layer of brick to keep out the cold 
and also to form a better protection. The roofs, 
more especially in the early houses, were very 

[148] 







s o 

o 

i w 

i i 




S o 

1 



LITTLE ORCHARD 

steep, since they were planned for thatching; 
later on, when shingles came into use, they grew 
lower and wider. It was not until 1700 that 
the gambrel roof came into style. In considering 
the evolution of the house we must look back- 
ward, and thus we come to realize the progres- 
sion of architecture. We then discover that 
every old house shows interesting features, and 
it is the house with a history that makes its 
greatest appeal to the antiquarian ; while the re- 
vival of Colonial architecture brings a renewed 
interest in the history of that period. 

There is no more attractive remodeled farm- 
house than that of Mr. Roland C. Lincoln, which 
is a charming, rambling, summer home situated 
on the Gloucester road half way between Man- 
chester-by-the-Sea and Magnolia. It is a low, 
yellow cottage, picturesquely placed against a 
background of trees and nestled on the side of a 
hill seemingly as if it had been there for centuries. 
At the front is the ocean, while surrounding it 
is well-placed shrubbery and artistically trained 
vines. 

The grounds are just at the left of the main 
road and separated from it by a low stone wall ; 
the entrance is by a driveway at one side that 

[H9] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

winds to an entrance porch. All around the 
house are carefully trimmed lawns and gardens 
gay with flowers, while the soft expanse of green 
sward extends to the shadowing trees and the 
background of forest and rock. The house was 
built two hundred and fifteen years ago. At 
that time it stood on the road and was overshad- 
owed by the very oldest house there was in the 
town, which stood on the crest of an adjoining 
hill. It then contained four rooms only, each 
one of which was thirteen and a half feet square. 
Surrounding the old farmhouse was an orchard 
of apple-trees that even in the early days gave to 
it its present name of Little Orchard. 

The possibilities of the little cottage, as it 
stood forlorn by the side of the road, attracted 
the attention of the present owner, who purchased 
it, moved it back from the road to its present 
location, and remodeled it, adding a wing at the 
left. The old front door was improved by the 
addition of a semicircular porch which is an exact 
reproduction of the porch on the White house at 
Salem, Massachusetts. The side porch was unique 
and most picturesque in its design. Ivy has 
been trained to cover the veranda and outline 
many of the windows. 

[150] 



LITTLE ORCHARD 

At the rear, facing the garden with its frontage 
of gnarled apple-trees, we find the veranda or 
out-of-doors living-room. This is used during 
the summer months and commands one of the 
most picturesque views on the estate, overlooking 
lawns and forest. 

Entrance to the old house is through the porch, 
and one finds himself in a most charming hall- 
way, at one side of which is an alcoved recess. 
This is hung in blue and white Morris paper. 
Near the front door at the right is the staircase 
which leads with low treads and broad landing 
to the second-story floor; it has a hand-carved 
balustrade with a mahogany rail, while its newel 
post shows fine carving. Half way up between 
two huge beams have been placed some wonderful 
old pieces of china of the Colonial period, and 
under them is the quaint inscription, a welcome 
to the home, "In God's hands stands this house, 
may good luck come to it and bad luck go out of 
it." The staircase is reproduced from a partic- 
ularly fine model found in a house in Boston that 
was originally the home of one of America's 
greatest statesmen, Edward Everett. It fits into 
its new surroundings as if it had always been 
there and is exactly the type one would expect 

[151] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

to find in such a house as this. There is a fine old 
cabinet near the staircase that is considered one 
of the best pieces in the country. Inside is an 
entire tea-set of Lowestoft originally brought to 
Manchester by one of the old sea captains as a 
commercial venture and placed on sale. It was 
purchased by the present owner and holds a 
prominent place in her collection. 

At the foot of the stairs, inside the front door, 
the name of the house has been done in burnt 
wood. Mrs. Lincoln arranged to have this exe- 
cuted while she was traveling abroad and when 
talking with the workman she told him the story 
of her remodeled farmhouse and why it was 
named Little Orchard. He was very much inter- 
ested in her description, and when the inscription 
was finished, it bore not only the name, but decor- 
ations in each corner of tiny little apples. 

At the end of the entrance hall is the dining- 
room which is long and well lighted by many 
windows on two sides. This was a part of the 
original house, enlarged and added to. Here 
we find the low stud and the beamed ceiling so 
prevalent in houses of that day. It is hung with 
a most interesting Morris paper done in pink 
and blue, and at one end is a recessed sideboard. 




The Stairway 
LITTLE ORCHARD 




The Entrance Porch 




The Dining Room 
LITTLE ORCHARD 



LITTLE ORCHARD 

The upper part of this is used as a china cup- 
board, while on either side bookcases have been 
inserted. The furnishing of this room is all of 
the Colonial period; the chairs are Sheraton, 
as is also the sideboard. The fireplace is unusually 
good, being handsomely carved with a basket 
of fruit as the central decoration. 

Opening from the dining-room is the living- 
room, a large, square room with beamed ceiling, 
a feature being a built-in bookcase at the farther 
end. On the walls are many original paintings 
including one by the late William H. Hunt, 
"Tired of Work." An interesting inglenook is 
a space-saving device that has been introduced. 
Underneath the window-seat, studded in brass 
nails, is the name of the house again, Little 
Orchard. 

The reception-room is back of the living-room 
and shows the staircase of old Colonial design 
at the farther end. The fireplace was taken 
from a house which once sheltered General Lafay- 
ette. When the house was torn down, the beauty 
of the carving and the graceful design attracted 
the attention of the present owner, who purchased 
it for his remodeled house. When it was brought 
home, it was found to be almost impracticable, 

ti53 1 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

through being so badly worm-eaten; under the 
hands of skilful workmen, however, it has been 
thoroughly renovated and is now a prominent 
feature of the room. The apartment is well 
lighted by many windows, each one of which is of 
a different design. These have been perfectly 
planned, and there is no discordant note. 

The second story has been so arranged that all 
the rooms open into each other and also into the 
hallway. They are of low stud and contain 
dormer windows. The Colonial atmosphere has 
been carefully observed, so that new pieces which 
have been introduced fit in harmoniously with 
the old ones. Each room has a large, open fire- 
place with a crane, suggestive of good cheer. 

The success of this house has been attained 
through the careful thought of the owners, and 
it is an example of a charmingly remodeled farm- 
house of a type such as one seldom finds. 



[iS4l 



CHAPTER XIV 

WILLOWDALE 

SHOULD you chance to run across an old farm- 
house that shows good interior woodwork, do not 
carelessly pass it by, for such houses are not easy 
to discover. You must realize that when restored 
it will be much more attractive than one with a 
plain mopboard and narrow cornice. 

Woodwork was not of the Colonial type in the 
earliest houses; it was used merely as a wall 
covering and was called wainscot, the same as it 
is to-day. This was because the paneling was 
originally made from wainscot oak which was 
well grained and without knots. Differing from 
that in nineteenth-century houses, it was put on 
the walls vertically, the boards being rough and 
wide. It must be remembered that in those 
days trees had not been felled to any extent, and 
the giants of the forest provided the best of lum- 
ber for this purpose. These boards were either 
lapped or put together with tongue-strips. Later 
on, we find interiors where they were laid hori- 

[iSSl 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

zontally, like those of a century or more ago, and 
instead of being plain boards, were well finished. 

Wainscot is an inheritance from our early ances- 
tors, for in the manor houses in the mother country 
there is wonderful woodwork, used not only for 
wainscot, but for other parts of the interior finish. 
White pine, which at that time grew abundantly in 
our native woods, was employed for interior as 
well as exterior purposes, this being more especially 
true in the northern and eastern parts of the 
country, where it was more plentiful. It has 
generally been conceded that this wood was the 
best on account of its wearing properties, and as 
it did not show figure in either the grain or mark- 
ings. It was often called "cheese-like" and for 
this reason was preferred by wood-carvers and 
cabinetmakers for their art. 

The wainscot was used until about the time of 
the Revolution and not until a later period were 
the walls plastered. It has never lost its popu- 
larity and is found in many twentieth-cen- 
tury houses. It is generally shown in paneled 
effects which came into vogue much later than 
the plain board period. This woodwork was 
generally in the lower story, where more time 
and thought were given to interior '. finish ; very 



WILLOWDALE 

rarely is it found in the chambers and then only 
in the better class of houses. Wainscot is not 
the only interior woodwork used; we often find 
whole walls finished in paneled wood, and fire- 
places with a simple frame in paneled effects. 
Many of these old fireplaces showed a wooden 
shelf only, while later on, in the early part of the 
nineteenth century, fine carvings were included. 
Occasionally we run across a mantel of this kind 
in an old farmhouse, but it is very rare. 

It would be out of place for the house owner to 
introduce a mantel of this kind, no matter how 
attractive, in some types of old farmhouses. It 
would not be in keeping with the style and, while 
handsome and graceful in design, would be incon- 
gruous even in remodeled surroundings. 

Door-frames as well as the wainscot betoken 
the age of the house, for in the earlier ones doors 
are perfectly plain in finish, elaboration in design 
of paneling and wood-carving coming into play 
at a little later period. Cornices widened and 
also became more elaborate as house building 
progressed, and a century after the first wainscot 
was used, we find them sometimes several inches 
in width and showing different motives, such as 
the egg and dart. These also are rarely found in 

[157] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

an old farmhouse, for it must be remembered 
that our early ancestors had little time to think 
out elaboration in the interior finish of their 
homes which were built solely as shelters. 

In the reproductions of to-day the wide boards are 
not easy to find, unless they are taken from some 
old house. One of the most valuable boards is the 
pumpkin pine which is now rarely found, having 
disappeared from the New England forest long 
ago. Fortunate is the house owner who dis- 
covers this wood in his old farmhouse, for it is 
found only in the very oldest buildings. The 
softness of the wood and the great width of the 
boards distinguish it from the white pine. 

In 1695, on the shores of Cape Cod, not far 
from Cataumet, a small farmhouse was built, with 
four rooms down-stairs and two rooms and an 
unfinished attic above. It was the home of one 
of the early settlers and stood facing the highway, 
a simple, unpretentious dwelling of no particular 
design and incongruous architecture. Although 
it had been substantially built, it had been aban- 
doned for many years and was in a most dilapi- 
dated condition. Originally the water came nearly 
to its door, but the shore line gradually had re- 
ceded, so when first discovered, the little building 

[158] 




Before Remodeling 




The Front View 

WlLLOWDALE 




c 
u 

g 

rt 

o 






3 

I 

ri 






WILLOWDALE 

stood with its back to the road, and its face to 
the bare meadows. 

Like other houses of this early period, it was 
guiltless of paint, and its weather-beaten sides 
showed the wear and exposure of many years' 
conflict with the elements. To transform this 
house into a summer home equipped with ac- 
commodations adequate for a modern family, 
was a difficult problem. The proportions of the 
exterior were good but so simple that in order 
to extend the original quaint outline of the house 
without marring it, the additions had to be made 
with unusual care. 

The first step was to carefully study the period for 
correct remodeling and to lay out the five acres of 
grounds to balance the house and preserve symme- 
try of detail. A driveway starts at the entrance, 
where on a high pole swings a shield-like sign with 
a red background and showing the name of the 
house, Willowdale, in white. The estate is defined 
by a fence, and the house in its remodeled state 
is attractively located on rising land, many feet 
back from the main highway. 

A hundred years after the house was built, a 
new highway was opened at the rear; thus the 
front or south side was wholly screened from 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

observation, and it was here that the new owner 
decided to lay out his garden. It is enclosed 
by a high fence painted white, with latticed 
panels stained green; at the end a summer- 
house was erected, whose axis is the central path 
of flat stepping-stones that leads to the quaint 
porch entrance. Its three outer sides extend 
beyond the fence and command a broad view of 
the picturesque shore territory. The garden 
proper is of the old-fashioned type, in conformity 
with the old-time atmosphere of the estate, and 
the same sorts of flowers thrive in the trim beds 
that bloomed no doubt in the first owner's garden. 
Trailing vines conceal the fence outlining this 
plot from view. The only distinctive modern 
touch and yet one quite in harmony with the 
quaintness of the grounds is a large crystal gazing- 
bowl. This reflects in its luminous surface the 
nodding heads of the flowers, the floating clouds, 
the children dashing past, or the still loveliness 
of the summer sunset which preludes the night. 

The original house had been substantially built, 
and while appearing dilapidated, few of the shin- 
gles needed replacing even after two hundred years' 
wear. In the interior comparatively few repairs 
were necessary, paint and paper being the prin- 

[160] 



WILLOWDALE 

cipal requisites. Additions had to be made to 
secure the needed room, and the first problem 
was to arrange these to conform with the original 
quaint outline. The old part was of the old farm- 
house type, low of build. To the right a wing 
was built to contain three bedrooms and a bath- 
room, and to balance this a broad, covered ve- 
randa was added at the left ; behind this, at the 
rear, quarters for the kitchen, servants' hall, and 
chambers were thrown out. There was need 
of more light for the second-floor rooms in the 
old building, so dormers were inserted in the deep 
pitched roof at the front. 

The exterior was then painted dark red with a 
white trim, following the style of the first painted 
houses. Whether the red was used for economy's 
sake or not is a question, but it probably was, 
and proved most appropriate. Yellow was the 
next coloring used, which is shown by the fact 
that it is sometimes found with red underneath; 
the white paint came into vogue still later. 

Over the front door a small porch was built 
which was in strict keeping with the period. Trel- 
lises were erected at one side of the house for 
rambler roses and vines that would break the 
plain, solid effect of the shingled surface. An 

[161] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

old-fashioned well was boxed in, at the rear of 
the kitchen entrance, and furnishes drinking- 
water for the family. The old chimney was 
retained, so that the fireplaces could be used. 

When the house was first built, there were two 
rooms at the front and at the rear a kitchen, 
kitchen-bedroom, and a dairy. The three small 
rooms were thrown into one large room which is 
now used as a dining-room. When the plaster 
was scraped off from the ceiling, it was found 
that there were hand-hewn beams underneath 
in such a good state of preservation that they 
were left uncovered, giving to the new apart- 
ment a distinctive touch. It was then discovered 
that the house had been built around a tree, for 
a substantial oak, with its roots deep in the 
ground and its large trunk still shouldering the 
roof beam, was disclosed. Underneath the old 
paper was found fine wood paneling which was 
scraped and painted white; next the fireplace 
was opened, and proved to be eight feet wide with 
a swinging crane at the back. This was restored 
to its original size, and a square, brick hearth 
was laid. The old floors were replaced by new 
ones, and the entire room was given the tone of 
the period. Rag rugs are laid on the floor, and 

[162] 



-'' 




A Rear View 




The Living Room 

WlLLOWDALE 





Two of the Chambers 

WlLLOWDALE 



WILLOWDALE 

all the furniture represents seventeenth-century 
pieces. At one end of the room is the dining- 
table, and at the farther side, large French windows 
hung with chintz open on to a vine-clad veranda. 

The parlor, which opened from the dining-room, 
was covered with many layers of dirty wall-paper. 
When these were removed, it was discovered that 
there was a very fine wainscoting. In one corner 
was a three-cornered cupboard with a paneled 
door underneath. The fireplace was opened up, 
and when the room was painted it developed 
into one of the most charming rooms in the house. 
The paneling was painted just off the white, and 
the walls were hung with soft, gray paper with 
tiny pink flowers, making the color scheme of the 
room gray and pink. This was carried out in 
all the furnishings, the chintz used for cushions 
and the hangings harmonizing with these tones. 
Instead of having all the furniture of the Colonial 
period, comfortable willow chairs were introduced, 
in order to give the light, airy touch that makes 
a summer home distinctive. This is a large, 
livable room, well-lighted by many windows and 
looking out upon the lawn and the garden. 

The hallway is of the plain, simple type which 
was so common in the oldest houses. The walls 

[163] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

are covered with a reproduction of an old-time 
landscape paper, and the passage forms the divi- 
sion line between the old sitting-room and the 
dining-room. This dining-room is now used as 
a chamber; it is large and sunny with a wide- 
open fireplace. It is furnished with an Empire 
bed and shows everything that would have been 
found in the early days in a chamber of this kind, 
even to the spirit lamp that stands on the high 
mantel, the warming-pan beside the generous 
fireplace, the oval mirror, and the wooden cradle 
with its hand-woven blanket, where now sleeps 
a twentieth-century baby. 

On the second story the rooms have been re- 
modeled and show the same good taste which 
prevails all through the house. The unfinished 
attic has been plastered, papered, and converted 
into two bedrooms which are equipped with the 
old-time furnishings and are used primarily as 
guest rooms. % The gable windows make them 
light and airy and at the same time afford a 
charming glimpse of the garden, heavy with the 
fragrance of the sweet-smelling blossoms, much 
as it was two centuries ago. 

Willowdale is one of the most comfortable and 
well appointed of the many remodeled houses 

[164] * 



WILLOWDALE 

that are found in New England. It is the posses- 
sion of such a quantity of fine old woodwork that 
has given the house its distinctive atmosphere, 
though this has been preserved and heightened 
by the good taste of the present residents, who 
have succeeded in making it a most livable dwell- 
ing. Every room is well lighted and well venti- 
lated, yet the house maintains in its renovated 
state all the quaintness and charm of a seventeenth- 
century home. It is a fine example of how an 
old house can be remodeled with little trouble 
and expense, and how the old and new can be 
combined harmoniously. 



[165] 



CHAPTER XV 

THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

IN remodeling a farmhouse, one should plan 
to build wide verandas, overlooking pleasing 
views. These can be glass-enclosed, so that 
during inclement weather one need not stay in- 
doors. Outdoor life is a part of the essentials 
in planning a summer home, and it means so 
much to the house owner that every possible means 
should be devised to secure it. With this object 
in view, why not lay out around the house attrac- 
tive flower beds ? Just a plain lawn does not mean 
much, but planted with trees, effective shrubbery, 
and well-planned gardens, it furnishes an induce- 
ment to sit on the porch and watch the ever 
changing views. 

In attempting this work, plan for vistas, well- 
selected spaces through which one can get glimpses 
of the world beyond. Have an objective point 
in view, so that the beauty of the setting sun and 
the clouds clothed in rainbow hues make it more 
attractive. Panorama effects are always inter- 

[166] 




Before Remodeling 




The Front of the House 
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE 




<U 

h 



OQ 



w 
O 

O 

O 



THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

esting and are obtained through judicious planting, 
for one must remember that a plain level lawn in 
itself has few features that attract. Let the 
units be carefully spaced, and if there are walks 
or drives near the house, lay them out where they 
will not detract from the picturesque effect that 
you desire. An exception can be made with 
the English or flag treads, which make a charm- 
ing adjunct to the grounds when grass grown. 

In the early days, the first settlers had their 
flower beds close to the house, probably because 
they did not then interfere with garden space. 
The effect was pleasing, for it added to the simple 
attraction of the early building. It is a good 
plan, after remodeling a house, to carry out this 
scheme of our forebears and have a narrow bed 
following the line of the house. Trees also are 
always effective; they break the roof line and 
shut off objectionable views. If you have no 
trees, by all means plant some. Screens can be 
devised by planting shrubbery, which makes un- 
necessary a latticed enclosure and is all the more 
interesting if the shrubs bear flowers, adding 
a bright spot to the color scheme. They are 
very practical as well, since they serve many 
purposes besides shutting off objectionable por- 

[167] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

tions of the grounds. If rightly planted, they 
serve as windbreaks and can be arranged to 
frame a vista. While evergreen is often used 
for this scheme, yet shrubs such as the lilac, 
forsythia, bridal wreath, flowering almond, and 
many others are suitable. Plant these so that 
there will be a continuation in bloom, and also 
with reference to a definite color scheme. 

A remodeled farmhouse set back from the road 
without any surrounding decoration of garden 
or hedge cannot be picturesque, for merely a 
stretch of green lawn leaves it bare and unin- 
viting, no matter how much you cover the house 
with vines. The composition of house and garden 
should be carefully planned, all the more if the 
estate is extensive, with plenty of land that can 
be used for this purpose. It is not much trouble 
to plant shrubs, and they need little cultivation. 
In the woods near at hand you can usually find 
plenty that will serve the purpose, if economy 
has to be considered. 

In planting the garden there are many things 
to be regarded ; one of the most important is the 
sequence of bloom. This should be arranged 
with a view to color effects, for nowhere will 
one's taste be more conspicuous than in the gar- 

[168] 



THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

den plot which surrounds the house. There is 
no doubt that the harmony of color is a vital 
question, and complementary ones should be 
grouped together. Yellow should never be left 
out of the garden unless one wishes a very quiet 
effect; red is a favorite color and contrasts well 
with white. It must be remembered that quiet 
colors can be used in greater profusion than 
glaring ones; and if the exterior of the house is 
white, it permits one a much wider latitude in 
the choice of colors and in the arrangement of 
pleasing effects. 

The combination of house and garden that is 
found on the George E. Barnard estate of Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, is ideal and the result of many 
years of careful thought. The house was origi- 
nally a small and unattractive farmhouse which 
contained only four rooms; it was dilapidated 
and forlorn in appearance and situated in the 
midst of uncultivated grounds. It was the loca- 
tion which attracted the present owner, for he saw 
here great possibilities for development; so he 
purchased the estate with a view of surrounding 
the house with gardens. 

The house has been added to, a little at a time, 
by throwing out here a room and there a veranda, 

[169] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

instead of completing the whole work at once. 
Vine-covered verandas now surround three sides 
of the house ; the shrubbery has been well planted. 

From the time the garden was first started, 
it was the desire of the owner to paint in flowers 
what other people have painted on canvas. Steep 
hills that obstructed the view at the side of the 
house have been converted into gentle slopes; 
bare spots have been thickly planted, and colors 
have been combined so that there is no inharmoni- 
ous note in the finished garden. Careful planning 
eliminated straight lines, but not even the slightest 
curve in a flower bed was made until after due 
consideration. The flowers were planted to fulfill, 
as near as possible, the scheme of a landscape 
picture, and each plant not in perfect harmony was 
removed. The effect as one sits on the veranda 
is like looking at an immense canvas, where the 
pictures change with every move, for the estate 
is a masterpiece of color and bloom, depicting 
a different phase of landscape on every side. 

In remodeling the house, so many changes 
have been made that it is almost impossible 
to tell the manner in which the improvements 
were effected. There is not a room in the 
house but has been thoroughly changed, nor one 

[170] 



THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

that has not been enlarged. The service quarters 
are all new; they have been placed in the rear, 
where they do not intrude on the scheme that 
has been carried out in remodeling that of 
making an attractive house in keeping with the 
setting of the grounds. The main house is at 
the front and has been kept in practically the 
same general style as when purchased. The 
entire rear portion of the house has been added 
a little at a time, until now it is most complete in 
each and every detail. 

Dormer windows have been let into the roof 
in order to give better lighting, and the wide 
verandas have been railed in, to provide an up- 
stairs living-room, from which one gets the best 
views of the garden. The lower veranda is fur- 
nished with well-chosen willow furniture, each 
piece being carefully selected so that there are 
no two alike. It has been given a setting of 
ornamental bay-trees in green tubs and huge 
pottery vases filled with masses of bloom. The 
most attractive part of the veranda is at one 
side of the house, where it is paved with brick 
and lined on the one side with evergreen trees 
and on the other with scarlet geraniums. 

The hall or morning-room was a part of the 

[171] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

original house. It is entered directly from the 
veranda and has been so treated as to present 
a different series of pictures from the time one 
enters the door until one leaves, each room which 
opens out of it being carefully designed for har- 
monious effects. 

At the left of the room is the staircase which 
leads to the second-story floor. The low mahogany 
risers and treads contrast with the white balusters 
which are topped with a highly polished mahog- 
any rail. Doors have been removed so that the 
adjoining rooms are glimpsed as one enters from 
the veranda. This room is hung with a Colonial 
paper showing delicately tinted red flowers against 
a gray background, and its beauty is heightened 
by the leaded glass windows of the china closet 
at the right and the simple fireplace with its brass 
accessories. Every bit of furniture here is old 
Colonial and is upholstered in green to match 
the color of the hangings. A long French window 
opens on to the veranda and gives glimpses of the 
beautiful gardens. The upper portions of the old 
cupboards that were in the house have been glassed 
in. The floors have had to be relaid. 

Particularly noticeable is the den which is at 
the left of the hallway. Here the color scheme 

[172] 




The Pergola-Porch 
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE 




The Hall 




The Alcove in the Living Room 
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE 



THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

is green, the walls being covered with textile ; the 
wainscot is painted white, and the hangings at 
the window brighten the plain effect of the wall 
treatment. There is no crowding of furniture, 
but a dignified atmosphere pervades the entire 
room. It is an apartment such as one loves to 
find quiet and restful. These two rooms occupy 
the entire front of the house. 

Opening from the hall is a long reception-room 
which was originally a part of the old house and 
which shows two rooms thrown into one, with 
an addition at the end nearest the avenue. This 
is done in old blue velour and is furnished in 
mahogany. The plain tint of the wall gives an 
admirable background to the fine old pictures 
which hang here and there. Every piece of furni- 
ture in this room is Colonial. Ionic columns outline 
the wide double windows. Light and air have 
been carefully considered in the remodeling of 
the entire house and have particularly been 
sought in designing this room, as is shown by the 
many windows on either side. At the farther end, 
to one side, a French window leads to a glassed-in 
veranda which is used for a breakfast-room. 

This room is a feature of the house, for it has 
been set in the middle of the terraced grounds 

[173] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

that lie at the side of the house, so that one can 
get the full benefit of the picture garden with 
the slope of the hill beyond rising to meet the 
blue of the horizon. 

In the reception-room, as in every room in the 
house, wooden doors have been removed and 
replaced by glass ones which act as windows to 
reveal the room beyond. It is a most unusual 
treatment, this picture idea carried out inside 
as well as outside of the house, for there is 
no spot in the whole interior where you do not 
get a vista of some kind. 

Beyond the reception-room is the dining-room. 
This, too, is a long, narrow room and has been 
added since the house was purchased, but so 
fitted in that it is seemingly a part of the old house. 
This room is divided into a dining and a break- 
fast-room and is used during inclement weather. 
Heavy draperies make it possible to shut the 
rooms off from each other if desired. The entire 
end of the breakfast-room has been given up to 
groups of long French windows which are repeated 
on either side, making a wide bay window. Here 
again has the picture effect been carried out, for 
the windows act as a frame to the mass of harmoni- 
ous blossoms beyond, with their setting of green. 



THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE 

The dining-room proper has a paneled Colonial 
landscape paper; the furniture is of the Empire 
period, while at the farther end of the room have 
been let in on either side of the long windows an 
attractive china closet. Here, as in every room 
in the house, we find wainscot and the same use 
of white paint. 

At the rear of this dining-room are the service 
quarters which consist of a large, sanitary, and 
well-equipped kitchen, butlers' pantries, servants' 
dining-room and sitting-room. The chambers in 
the second story are entirely separate from the rest 
of the house. 

The second floor shows at the right of the stair- 
case a most delightful morning-room which is 
large and square with an open fireplace. This 
is a particularly attractive room, for it commands 
magnificent views. The rest of the house is given 
over to chambers which are laid out in suites and 
furnished with old-time furniture. 

There is an atmosphere about this remodeled 
farmhouse that is refreshing and most unusual. 
It has taken years to satisfactorily develop the 
owner's idea of combining house and garden in 
one harmonious color scheme. In the exterior 
this is changed each year, the favorite combi- 

[i75l 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

nation being lavender and white. This is attained 
by the use of heliotrope and sweet alyssum which 
outline the terraced wall and which show a carpet 
of green for central effect. * 

The veranda is a harmony of green and white 
which is carried out in the awnings, the foliage, 
the willow furniture, and the white of the exterior 
and the balustrade. In the interior there is not 
a jumble of different colorings, and the rooms 
have been so arranged that they present a series 
of pictures brought about by the use of plain 
colors that perfectly blend. This has not been 
the work of a day or a year, but of ten years of 
careful study and is one of the most instructive 
lessons for those who are planning to remodel 
an old farmhouse and to introduce into its interior 
finish harmonious, restful, color schemes. 



176] 




The Den 




The Dining Room 
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE 




o 

ffi 



W 

S 
h 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 

MANY of the old houses still contain some fine 
specimens of old hardware that were used when 
they were built, more especially the H and L hinges 
and the old latches which have not been removed. 
The knockers have often disappeared, being more 
conspicuous and therefore eagerly sought, not 
only by collectors but by builders of new houses 
into which Colonial ideas have been introduced. 

If you are looking for this particular feature 
in the farmhouse, you will probably find it widely 
varied, as the different owners of the house each 
had his own special ideas and changed the hard- 
ware to suit his tastes. Many did not realize 
the importance of these fixtures in retaining the 
sixteenth and seventeenth-century interiors. 

It is absolutely necessary that the hardware 
should correspond in material to period. Too 
little thought has been given to this subject and 
has led to an incongruous use of hardware, leaving 
an impression of lack of information concerning 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the correct architectural details of the house. 
There is a decided difference between the hard- 
ware that was used in the latter part of the six- 
teenth century and the early seventeenth and that 
we employ to-day. The twentieth-century " build- 
ers' hardware" covers a great variety of objects 
included in every part of the house. In Colonial 
times the term was applied to few, such as latches, 
locks, knockers, and hinges, some of which were 
very ornamental in design, for they ranged from 
small pieces to large ones. 

The evolution of this special feature of the house 
is of interest to the house builder; it originated 
in the Dark Ages, at which period we find used 
Romanesque, Renaissance, and Gothic types in 
so many different forms that it is little wonder 
the architect turns to them for copy. The best 
examples are seen in the late sixteenth and 
early seventeenth-century houses, when the decora- 
tion of the entrance door was a very serious sub- 
ject and received great attention, especially dur- 
ing the Colonial period. Then the knockers 
were of the most importance and were either of 
cast-iron or brass. The former were often very 
beautiful in design and were used on the earlier 
houses, for brass did not come into favor until 

[178] 



THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 

later. Unfortunately the waning vogue of this 
piece of hardware led to many rare pieces being 
destroyed or thrown into the melting pot. It is 
fortunate that some house owners realized their 
worth and that collectors felt they would become 
a fad later on and so stored them away, which 
accounts for many old knockers found on the 
market to-day. 

The latch, lock, knob, and hinge are also inter- 
esting. The former is made from either iron or 
brass but rarely of any other metal. Before the 
appearance of the latch, the door-ring was used, 
but this it would be most difficult to locate. 
The thumb-latch is occasionally fanciful in design 
but is generally very plain and is rarely seen even 
in old-time houses, having been replaced by the 
door-knob. The most common feature, and one 
which we are quite apt to discover, is the long 
strap-hinge which was designed for a special 
purpose, for we must remember that in the early 
days wooden pins were used to fasten the door; 
and while they kept it compact, yet it demanded 
the strap-hinge also for protection. This hinge 
will be found in many different patterns and makes, 
sometimes running almost the entire width of 
the door, and often constructed in three sections, 

[i79l 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the upper, lower, and central, although fre- 
quently only two were used. The ornamental 
ones are rarely if ever seen in farmhouses, being 
confined to the wealthier class. The plain iron 
ones were more often found, and these are of two 
types, the one known as the H hinge and the 
other as the H and L. 

Closet doors often are equipped with the H 
hinge which takes its name from its formation. 
Because of the fact that the home builders of 
to-day are turning their attention more and more 
to the use of decorative hardware, one should 
be very careful to retain this feature as an effec- 
tive detail in the interior finish of a remodeled 
farmhouse. 

i In the town of Reading, Massachusetts, is a 
most attractive remodeled farmhouse that has 
been carefully worked out by W. P. Adden with 
such a regard for the preservation of old-time 
atmosphere that it can be considered as a fine 
type to copy. Not only has the exterior been 
carefully planned, but the owner has gone farther 
and made a special study of the hardware, so that 
the house to-day contains many wonderful ex- 
amples that are correct in their treatment and 
add much to the atmosphere of the home. 

[180] 



THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 

This old farmhouse was originally a gambrel- 
roofed cottage built about 1760 and was probably 
a four-roomed house, as is indicated by the parti- 
tions filled with brick that were found in the 
center of the present house, and also by an old 
brick oven and fireplace which were buried up 
and covered over by the portion of an old brick 
chimney evidently added later. The additions 
to this dwelling, even when purchased by the 
present owner, had been carefully planned, so 
that there were no awkward joinings or incongru- 
ous jogs discernible in the outline. There is no 
doubt that here, as in other old farmhouses, the 
early builders had displayed an inherent sense of 
proper proportion, and the additions which were 
made from time to time might be said to be after- 
expressions of first thoughts. 

When this house was first purchased, it was in 
an excellent state of preservation, with the excep- 
tion of the ell which was past repairing. It faced 
directly south and had evidently been set by a 
compass regardless of street boundary, though 
the location was only a short distance from the 
main road. The design of the house contained 
all the characteristics of early construction, 
the small-paned windows, closely cropped eaves, 

[181] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

and long, unrelieved, roof line. At the time of 
the purchase of the estate, which had originally 
included hundreds of acres, it was surrounded by 
a low wall of field stone which had evidently been 
taken from the grounds to make tillage possible. 
The house stood on a slope and was surrounded 
by grass land ; the same idea is carried out to-day, 
in that little attempt has been made at garden 
culture, the owner preferring to keep the estate 
as near as possible to the farm lands of centuries 
ago. 

After the remodeling was commenced, many 
interesting facts of construction were brought to 
light. The north side of the house, which was 
originally the rear, was changed by the present 
owner into the main front, with entrance and 
staircase hall. The hall was necessarily small, 
and in order to make it practical, five feet of the 
large central chimney had to be removed, includ- 
ing three fireplaces and two brick ovens. It was 
then found that this portion had evidently been 
added to the house after the original chimney 
had been built, as an old fireplace and brick oven 
were found on the line of a partition on the south 
side of the hall. It was also discovered that in 
all probability the original house had a lean-to 

[182] 



THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 

at the north which was used for a kitchen, and 
that this fireplace and brick oven were a part of 
the old room. The original chimney was found 
by actual measurement to be sixteen feet by seven 
and a half feet, and the stone foundation was the 
largest ever seen, being ample enough to accom- 
modate the wide hearths as well as the chimney. 
In fact, to-day it takes all the central portion of 
the basement, leaving two small spaces on either 
side. In the remodeling, it was found that the 
original work was laid up with clay, meadow clay 
being taken as a binder. 

The exterior required little alteration, save on 
the north side, where it was necessary to remove 
a portion of the wall in order to run the hall out 
under the roof of the house so that it might be 
two stories in height. The front of the house, 
which faced directly south, was left unaltered, 
with the exception that on the opposite side from 
the ell a glass-enclosed piazza was built of like 
width, length, and height. This afforded a bal- 
last, as it were, to the main building and made a 
comfortable playroom for the children. 

A new porch, arched with Colonial pillars, was 
built at the front of the house in keeping with the 
type. In the ell a second one of less formal pro-: 

[183] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

portions was designed which was reached by a 
flagging of rough stones. A third porch of en- 
tirely different character was a finish to the rear 
of the house and shows lattice work, being quite 
ornamental in design. 

The angle formed by the main building and the 
new ell gave space for a flower plot, and here is 
located a small rose garden. This is outlined by 
broad paths of stone ; surrounding the whole 
are wide borders of old-fashioned flowers which 
lend a touch of color that is very attractive. 

Entering through the front porch, one comes 
to a new hall, and with the exception of this, there 
has been little change in interior. This hall is 
most interesting; here are found the H and L 
hinges, a yellow and white Colonial wall-paper, 
and a staircase that divides at the landing and by 
easy treads leads on either side to chambers 
above. An old grandfather's clock is an appro- 
priate furnishing for this part of the house. All 
through the lower story the old woodwork has 
been carefully preserved, and where it was de- 
stroyed it has been replaced. 

The living-room is practically as it was when 
purchased. Here we find the H hinges and the 
old-time latches, while through the center of the 

[184] 



THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 

room runs a beam which had to be cased in and 
which has been painted white to match the trim. 
At one side a built-in bookcase has followed the 
architectural lines so perfectly that it seems as 
if it had been there ever since the house was built. 
The simple Colonial fireplace shows more orna- 
mentation than is generally found in old farm- 
houses, which indicates that it was of a better 
type dwelling. With its new wall hangings and 
white trim, this room is most attractive. It 
connects with the sun-parlor at one end and is 
well-lighted and most homelike in atmosphere. 

The dining-room, facing east, has had a new 
group of windows added and contains the largest 
fireplace in the house. The china closet above 
the fireplace was discovered when the plaster was 
removed for the purpose of building in a similar 
one. This room is fitted with H and L hinges 
and the old-time iron latch. It was originally a 
portion of the old kitchen, the remainder of it 
being taken for a lavatory and passage-way. 

All through the house we find that careful atten- 
tion has been paid not only to hardware but to 
furnishings. No new-fashioned pieces have been 
used in any room in the house, and this careful 
attention to details has been carried out even 

[185] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

in the lighting fixtures, which are all of the 
Colonial type. 

The second-story floor has undergone changes 
to meet the requirements of the present owner. 
One half of this story is devoted to the nursery; 
it is equipped with a large fireplace, deep closets, 
bath, and nurse's room, while the remainder 
provides a large bedroom, bath, and dressing- 
room. It has been so arranged that each part is 
distinct by itself, and convenience has been looked 
after in every particular. 

. The original attic was entirely unfinished, and 
when new stairs were erected in the second-story 
hall, there was great difficulty in finding room 
enough to enter the attic by the side of the large 
chimney. 

In the remodeling of this house, comfort, a 
careful following of Colonial details, and an 
especial attention to the hardware are the salient 
features. 



[186] 




The Stairway 
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE 




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CHAPTER XVII 

THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

THERE is one thing that should be carefully 
considered in buying an old farmhouse, that is, 
character. In order to obtain this, distinct points 
should be sought after and brought out. These 
can be accentuated not only in the house but also 
in its surroundings, the garden, the trees, and 
the shrubbery; even the defining wall or fence 
does its part in making a good or bad impression 
on the casual passer-by. 

One must remember, in dealing with subjects 
of this sort, that the term "farmhouses" is a vary- 
ing one. These range from small, insignificant 
little dwellings to the more elaborate houses that 
were built primarily for comfort as well as shelter. 
There are many large, substantial dwellings, not 
of the earlier type, for they were erected much 
later, but which illustrate the progression of the 
farmhouse design. One looks in houses such as 
these for larger rooms, higher stud, and more 
up-to-date ideas. 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

The fireplaces are smaller and more ornate, 
for it must be remembered that as time passed 
on, money circulated more freely through the 
colonies, allowing for more extensive work and 
better finished details. While it is not necessary 
to copy the Colonial wall hangings, yet in the older 
houses it is much more satisfactory ; still one can 
depart from this custom in a more elaborate house 
and use his own taste in selecting an attractive 
modern paper. Many people consider that houses 
restored, no matter of what period, should inva- 
riably have carefully consistent interior finish, 
without realization that it is sometimes better 
to look for character than type. 

The old-time wall-papers, more especially the 
picturesque ones, were generally used in more 
expensive houses, although we find them here and 
there in the more simple ones. Often this feature 
of the interior decoration is not well carried out, 
the wall hangings being chosen for cheapness 
rather than merit. 

To-day there is on the market such a great 
variety of papers that it is a very easy matter to 
get one suitable for any certain room and suggest- 
ing good taste. Many of them are reproductions 
of old motives, while others are plain and simple 

[188] 



THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

in character, giving to the room a quiet effect 
and providing a good background for pictures and 
hangings. There is nothing more restful in char- 
acter than the soft grays ; they are effective as a 
setting for stronger colors that can be used in the 
curtains, for this part of a room finish is as impor- 
tant as the wall hangings themselves. There is 
an indescribable charm to a room that has been 
carefully planned and shows good taste and rest- 
ful surroundings. 

In many houses, some decorative scheme has 
been introduced which necessitates a particular 
kind of wall hanging, and even though it may be 
most unusual in type, it illustrates a motive that 
has been in the mind of the owner. Houses would 
lack character if the same line of interior deco- 
ration were carried out in all of them. With a 
high wainscot and cornice painted ivory white, 
comparatively little paper is needed, which reduces 
the cost and permits a better paper than if the 
room had a simple mopboard and a tiny molding. 

Papers that are garish and discordant in them- 
selves, if skilfully handled, can produce har- 
monious effects, for it is often the unusual wall 
hangings that attract most. In curtaining these 
rooms let the same main tone be reproduced.; 

[189] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

this need not apply to every detail but to the 
general tone. Many people are timid in the use 
of odd wall-papers or curtains; they are afraid 
that they may look bizarre, but they should 
remember that color is in reality a very powerful 
agent in making an artistic home. 

It is sometimes effective to treat a house as a 
whole, and then again it is better that each room 
should have its own individuality. Very few 
houses but have at least one corner that offers 
interesting opportunities, and it is the artistic 
treatment of this that helps out the harmony of 
the room. 

There is a charming atmosphere surrounding 
"Quillcote," the home of Kate Douglas Wiggin, 
at Hollis, Maine, where Mrs. Riggs spends three 
months of the year. It may be that the quiet- 
ness of the place lends to it additional charm, 
and then again it may possibly be the result of its 
environment. 

The house itself is typical of the better class of 
New England farmhouses, and since it has come 
into Mrs. Riggs' possession, many alterations 
have been made, until to-day it is one of the most 
attractive farmhouses to be found anywhere. 
Two stories and a half in height, with a slant 

[190] 



THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

to the roof, it stands back from the road on a 
slight elevation, with a surrounding of lawns and 
overshadowed by century-old elms. To-day its 
weather-beaten sides have been renovated by a 
coat of white paint, while the blinds have been 
painted green. A touch of picturesqueness has 
been secured through the introduction of a window- 
box over the porch, bright all through the season 
with blossoming flowers. There is no attempt at 
floriculture, the owner preferring to maintain the 
rural simplicity of a farmhouse devoid of flowers 
and only relieved by the shrubbery planted 
around the building. 

When the house was first purchased, it was 
not in a dilapidated condition, having been lived 
in by townspeople and kept in good repair. The 
work of remodeling has been done by the people 
of the village, and it has been superintended by 
the owner of the house, in order that her own 
ideas, not only in remodeling, but in decorating, 
should be exactly carried out. The old shed is 
now used as the service department, a wide 
veranda having been built at one side for a 
servants' outdoor sitting-room. At the rear of 
the house is the old barn, which to-day is used for 
a study and for entertainment purposes. 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Entrance to the house is through a Colonial 
door with a fanlight on either side. The owner 
has preferred to keep this in its original state, 
rather than add a porch of the Colonial type. 
The only porch that has been added to the house 
is a latticed, circular one at the side door. The 
entrance hall is long and narrow, the staircase 
also being narrow and built at one side in order 
to save space. The Colonial idea has been carried 
out here in the wainscot, and the ornamentation 
of hand-carving on the stairs shows it was done 
by a stair-builder and not by an ordinary me- 
chanic. The lighting is from a lantern which 
carries out the general effect. The wall-hanging 
is in Colonial colors, yellow and white, while 
the rugs are the old, woven rag carpets which are 
repeated for stair covering. The balusters are 
very simple in design, while the balustrade has 
been painted white, thus showing it is not of 
mahogany. 

At the right is the dining-room, a bright, sunny 
room that has been uniquely planned to occupy 
the front of the house instead of the rear, as is 
more usual. It is a large, square room, in which 
little or no alteration has been made and which 
has been treated so as to make an effective setting 




The Hall 
QUILLCOTE 





Two Views of the Living Room 
QUILLCOTE 



THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

to the rare old Colonial furniture. The size of the 
dining-room has been considered in reference to the 
furniture, this being one reason why Mrs. Riggs 
has chosen this large, square room in order to 
correctly place her old mahogany pieces. The 
decorations are very simple and follow out the idea 
of Colonial days, there being no pieces that are 
not in actual use. The walls are hung in shades of 
yellow and brown, and she has been most successful 
in carrying out her color scheme. 

The home study, or den, leads from the dining- 
room and has been carefully planned with an idea 
of restfulness. A chamber at one end has been 
converted into an alcove, and additional light is 
obtained by cutting a group of casement windows 
over the writing-table. The room is very simply 
furnished and shows marked originality. The 
walls are papered with woodland scenes, for it 
was a fad of the occupant to bring into the house 
by wall hangings suggestions of the outside world. 
While it is unique, it has a distinctly restful influ- 
ence and is in tone with the fireplace, which has 
been decorated with unusual features and which 
bears the name "Quillcote." The draperies in 
this room are original in treatment, being deco- 
rated to order by a noted artist who has intro- 

' 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

duced his signature in some part of the work. 
They are ornamented with original designs sug- 
gestive of farm life, with such subjects as wheat, 
apples, or corn and are covered with delicate 
traceries of rushes or climbing vines. The fire- 
place has for andirons black owls, and on either 
side stand altar candles. In the furnishing of 
the room everything has been chosen with an eye 
to restful effects ; the owner has done away with 
the pure Colonial idea, using the mission type 
and considering comfort more than convention- 
ality. 

Opposite the dining-room at the front of the 
house is the living-room, where further originality 
is found in furnishings and in scenes from nature 
introduced in the unique wall hangings. This 
room is in blue and white, the wall-paper being 
delft blue with a rush design over which hover 
gulls. Singularly enough, the idea is very pleas- 
ing. The hangings are of white muslin with blue 
overcurtains, while the furniture is a mixture of 
Colonial and modern pieces. An inglenook has 
been obtained through the introduction of a 
built-in window-seat which is covered with blue to 
match the tone of the paper. The furniture is 
all painted white, and the white fur rugs laid 



THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

upon the blue floor covering give a charming 
effect. The decoration and furnishing of this 
room is quiet and restful, for those two ideas 
form the basis of the owner's scheme which she 
had in mind long before she took this house and 
while she lived in the old family mansion that 
stands just across the way. It is a comfortable, 
livable room and not used for state occasions 
alone, but for everyday needs. 

Just beyond is the sitting-room in which an 
entirely different idea is presented. Here the 
china fad is evidenced in the ornamentation of 
priceless old plates that have been collected by 
the owner's sister, Miss Nora Smith, and arranged 
according to her taste. This room is a typical 
Colonial room, and the furniture shown is all of 
that period, even to a spinning-wheel which gives 
an old-time effect. From this room one passes 
through a door on to the rear porch, from which 
fine views are obtained of the little, old-fashioned 
garden, the pine grove opposite the house, and 
the winding road. 

The second story shows large, square chambers 
which have been carefully planned, each following 
out a distinct color scheme. In one of these 
rooms there is a combination of lavender, white, 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

and green, shown in wall hangings, curtains, and 
furnishings. The canopied Field bed, with its 
lavender and white spread, has been painted white. 
Over it has been draped a white muslin canopy. 
The walls are in light green and show no pictures 
save that of a Madonna and Child, suggestive of 
the author's love of children. On the mantel 
are several very rare pieces of Staffordshire, many 
of which can not be duplicated. The furniture 
has been painted white, with the exception of two 
chairs which have been treated to a coat of green. 

Another room, showing wainscot and a quiet 
yellow and white Colonial paper, has a Field bed 
with white spread and white muslin canopy. 
Here the Colonial idea in furnishing has been 
strictly carried out. 

, An original and yet artistic room has its walls 
entirely covered with a dainty cretonne, the bed- 
covering and hangings being of the same material. 

The most interesting idea in remodeling is 
presented by the old barn, which has been con- 
verted into a large music-room or hall, with a 
rustic platform at one end. Here a new floor 
has been laid, many windows inserted, and a few 
old-time settles placed, constructed of weathered 
wood toned by time to an almost silvery hue. 

[196] 




The Den 




The Dining Room 
QUILLCOTE 





Two of the Chambers 
QUILLCOTE 



THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE 

Nothing else has been changed ; the ancient rafters 
and walls remain as they were a century ago. 
The hall is lighted by many lanterns hanging from 
ceiling and harness pegs, also by curious Japanese 
lanterns painted especially for Mrs. Wiggin and 
bearing the name of the artist. The lanterns, 
hung from overhead, greatly relieve the somber 
effect of the heavy beams. At the rear of the 
hall a broad door space makes a frame for a pretty 
picture, a field of buttercups and daisies, a dis- 
tant house, and two arching elms. A large closet, 
once the harness-room, is fitted up with shelves 
and contains all the necessary china for a "spread" 
such as is given to the village folk several times a 
year, when dances are held in the old barn. 



[197] 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

FLOORS are an important detail in the remodeled 
house. Sometimes the original building has many 
that are in fairly good condition so that they 
can be saved. There is a great advantage in keep- 
ing these old floors if possible, for they were made 
with plain edge, of strong timber and laid close 
together. The earliest floors were not double in 
treatment, therefore the edges had to be either 
lapped or rabbited. 

|i These wide boards that were used in the early 
construction stand the test of furnaces and modern 
heating a great deal better than do modern ones 
of the same width. The latter are much more 
apt to shrink and open joints. It will be found 
that the better floors are in the second story in 
almost every house. 

It is probable, however, that if you are remodel- 
ing your house, you will have to lay at least one 
or more floors, and in such cases, matched hem- 
lock is the most advisable for the under floor; 

[198] 



THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

but the boards should be laid diagonally and close 
together. The usual method is to lay them match- 
ing the upper floor. It is a great mistake, even 
if advised to do so by an architect, to lay only 
one floor, for with shrinkage come cracks through 
which cold air and dust can rise; even a carpet 
does not remedy the trouble. 

Hardwood boards make the most popular floors 
and come in varying thicknesses, the oak being 
generally three eighths of an inch jjiick and the 
North Carolina pine averaging seven eighths of 
an inch. Both are employed for new floors and 
for re-covering old, soft-wood ones. The narrow 
width of oak is more satisfactory, as the narrower 
the stock the smaller the space between the strips 
and the less danger of unsightly appearance. 
They may be a little more expensive than the 
wider ones, but they make a much better showing. 
Then, too, the shading and figure blend more 
harmoniously than when the broader strips are 
employed. 

Narrow widths also obviate any danger of the 
flooring strips cupping, as they are laid and stay 
absolutely flat. One should be careful not to 
lay oak flooring while the walls and plaster are 
damp ; in fact, if you have to do much remodel- 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ing, the floor should be the last thing attended 
to, as it is a better plan to get everything else 
done and thoroughly dried even to painting, 
wall hangings, and decorating. K , ,- 

Hard pine is best for the kitchen, as it does 
not splinter, is more reasonable in price, and has 
fine wearing qualities. It must be taken into 
consideration that oak flooring is cheaper in the 
end than carpet. A yard of carpet is twenty- 
seven inches wide by three feet in length and con- 
tains six and three quarters square feet. Clear 
quartered-oak flooring can be bought, laid, and 
polished for one dollar per carpet yard, and when 
you consider the lasting qualities of the wood and 
the beauty of a polished floor, you will make no 
mistake to put in one of the better quality, more 
sanitary, and the best background for rugs, in- 
stead of laying a floor of cheap wood. 

Carpets, with the exception of straw matting, 
are inadvisable for a home like this. They are 
unsanitary, hold the dust, and are not nearly as 
attractive as rugs. These may vary in price with 
the purse of the owner, and can range from Orien- 
tal rugs, costing hundreds of dollars, to the simple 
rag rug which is always appropriate and in good 
taste. 

[200] 



THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

The absolute carrying out of the Colonial idea 
is not necessary, for it would not be appropriate 
to have old-fashioned rag mats in every room of 
the house. They can be used, however, in the 
dining-room or in the chambers, and to-day the 
woven rag carpets and mats are so attractive in 
their weave and so lasting that they are satisfac- 
tory adjuncts to the house furnishings. In the 
parlor and living-room, while they can be used if 
desired, there are so many attractive low-priced 
rugs, both Oriental and domestic, that it is an 
easy matter to get something both suitable and 
in good taste. 

This attention to floors and their covering is 
nowhere better shown than in the Franklin Brett 
House at North Duxbury, Massachusetts. This 
house, which is over two hundred and fifty years 
old, was put up at auction several years ago, at 
just the time when the present owner was looking 
for an old farmhouse to remodel. It was a double 
house that had been occupied by two families. 
The frame, excepting certain parts of the first 
floor joints and also portions of the sills, was in very 
good condition, but the first-floor boarding was 
badly worn and was not fit to be retained for use. 
It was replaced by a new one of narrow boards. 

[201] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

The second story, however, was in much better 
condition, and the floors, with the exception of 
the one in the bathroom, could all be used. The 
house was particularly ugly, displaying a combi- 
nation of bright yellow paint and dark red trim, 
and the exterior was wholly devoid of any artistic 
design. 

At the front of the house there was a wide porch, 
just a simple flooring and two doors that stood 
side by side. The old place was so forlorn that 
it was bid in during the excitement of the auction 
partly out of sympathy. It showed so little 
possibilities that at first the owner was doubtful 
whether it had been a good purchase, for the build- 
ing did not in any way fit his ideal of what was 
desired in order to make a suitable summer home. 

After careful examination, however, various 
possibilities were discovered indicating that there 
was a very good chance to make it attractive. 
Originally the house was built for one family only ; 
in architecture it was square-framed, containing 
two stories and an attic, with ells at the rear and 
one side and a deep, sloping roof broken by two 
chimneys. In the old house there were nine rooms 
on the first floor and five rooms and a hallway 
on the second. Some of these on the first floor 

[202] 




O 



H 
h 

w 

erf 




Before Remodeling 




As Remodeled 
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 



THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

have been combined by removing partitions to 
make a living-room and dining-room, together 
with a hallway. 

In the living-room were found some hand-hewn, 
second-floor joists, and it was decided to leave 
these exposed and plaster in between them, 
instead of bringing the ceiling down to its origi- 
nal level. In practically every room the plaster 
was in good condition and needed only to be 
treated in places. The chimneys were touched 
up wherever needed, but on the whole very few 
repairs were necessary. In the lower story to-day 
there are four rooms and a good-sized hall, while 
the second story is divided into six rooms and 
a bathroom. Five additional windows were added 
down-stairs and two in the second story, in order 
to secure proper light. Very little new material 
was put into the house, the work consisting chiefly 
of tearing out old material and patching woodwork 
and plaster. At the rear of the house, on a line 
with the larger ell, the smaller kitchen ell 
having been torn down, a rustic pergola was 
constructed and a covered veranda, over which 
grape-vines were trained for shade. The roof 
was partially reshingled, and the house was 
painted light gray with white trim, with green for 

[203] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

the blinds. At the front a Colonial porch was 
added with latticed sides and a settle, which is in 
direct keeping with the architecture of the house. 
In its remodeled condition, with its setting of 
closely cropped lawn, it bears little resemblance 
to the ugly farmhouse of a few years ago. 

There was no plumbing in the old house, so a 
single bathroom was put in, a hot- water boiler 
was added in the kitchen, and a hot-air engine 
and pump were installed in the cellar which 
furnish water under pressure from a thousand- 
gallon supply tank. Later on, a hot-water heater 
was installed, so that with the modern improve- 
ments the house was made very comfortable for 
habitation all the year round if desired. 

The original parlor on the left has been utilized 
for a morning-room; the bedroom, dining-room, 
and pantry have been combined into a living- 
room. The partitions between the old hallways 
have been removed, converting them into one 
good-sized hall. The remaining portion of the 
old dining-room has been made into a large pantry. 
The kitchen in the main ell has been left practi- 
cally unchanged as to size and shape, although 
the shed opening from it, as well as the kitchen 
itself, have been entirely renovated and equipped 

[204] 



THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

with up-to-date improvements. Paint and paper 
and rugs have effected an interior transformation 
that is most attractive. There are no doors in the 
house, wide openings making it appear as though 
it were one large room. 

The hallway is entered from the Colonial porch 
and is unique because of its spaciousness. The 
stairs are at the further end, opposite the door. 
The Colonial atmosphere has been maintained in 
the wall hangings, the braided rag mats, and the 
old furniture. 

At the left of the hall is the morning-room 
with its wide, open fireplace, its Colonial paper, 
and Oriental rugs which are in color tones to 
correspond with the paper. ; i 

Opening from this room is the living-room, 
where the same kind of rugs are laid on the hard- 
wood floor. In this room, after the house was 
purchased, a fireplace was discovered hidden 
away behind the partition. It was opened up 
and restored to its original size. At one side a 
closet was glassed in, while in either corner cosy, 
built-in settles give an inglenook effect that is 
very interesting. The furnishings are wholly 
Colonial and in keeping with the general character 
of the apartment. Here the low stud, the beamed 

[205] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ceiling, the depth and lightness of the room, are 
most attractive. From the long French window 
one steps out on grass land which commands a 
most attractive vista of shrubbery and trees. 

In the planting around the house, great care 
has been taken to secure shade and picturesque- 
ness, so that in its new life the remodeled farm- 
house is surrounded by charming effects. 

On the opposite side of the hallway one enters 
the long dining-room. It is finished in red and 
white, with one-toned hangings; at the farther 
end is a quaint corner cupboard; a handsome 
fireplace has been introduced at one side. Many 
of the pieces in this room are very rare, especially 
the Hepplewhite sideboard, the chair-table that 
was once owned by Governor Bradford, and the 
rush-bottomed chairs. Long glass windows open 
on the side veranda and combine with attractively 
grouped windows to make this room light and 
cheerful. 

Opening out of this is the pantry, conveniently 
equipped with cupboards and shelves, and be- 
yond is the kitchen and shed which have been 
made entirely modern in their appointments. 

The chambers up-stairs are large, square, and 
fitted up with furniture of the period. In taking 

[206] 




The Pergola-Porch 
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 







A First-floor Vista 




The Living Room 
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 



THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE 

a "secret" cupboard out of a closet, there was 
discovered some paneling that had been plastered 
and papered over. On removing the plaster, it 
was found that the whole side of the room was 
paneled. By the restoration of this old-time 
finish, the chamber became even more indicative 
of the period in which it was built. Here the wall 
hangings are all Colonial in design. 

Few houses, even among the many that are 
being restored, have retained the old-time atmos- 
phere throughout as completely as has this farm- 
house. Each room has been made comfortable 
and given an air of space, and consistency has been 
shown in the furnishing, thus securing a result 
that is perfectly harmonious and in the best of 
taste. By comparing the appearance of the old 
house at the time of its purchase with the results 
that have been obtained, one realizes how much 
thought and care have been put into its every 
part. The lines remain the same but have been 
extended by the introduction of the pergola at one 
side and a porch which are very attractive 
features in themselves. The combination of old 
and new, correctly treated, has" done much to make 
a harmonious whole. 

[207] 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

FORTUNATE is he who, on opening up the old 
fireplace in the house he intends to remodel, finds 
hidden away behind plaster and paper a pair of old 
andirons and possibly a shovel and tongs, indispen- 
sable furnishings for the fireplace. No old farm- 
house but what has in almost every room some 
kind of an open hearth, and these are useless for 
the burning of wood without fire-dogs or andirons, 
as they are commonly known. 

To the inexperienced house owner who is look- 
ing for economy in his house furnishing, repro- 
ductions are tempting, and most attractive sets 
of fire-dogs are to be found in almost every store. 
In choosing a set, however, one must exercise 
judgment. Many of the reproductions are low 
in cost but are really merely lengths of brass pip- 
ing, showing brass balls that are lacquered and 
strung together on invisible wire frames. They 
are in reality the cheapest kind of spun-brass 
andirons. If one with a knowledge of the weight 

[208] 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

of brass handles them, he will realize their flim- 
siness, but thousands of people do not recognize 
the difference. Poor fireplace accessories such 
as these detract greatly from the charm that sur- 
rounds a good hearth and mantel. 

It is no longer easy to pick up original, cut- 
brass andirons at the antique and junk shops, 
that is, at a reasonable price. It is in the country 
places, old farmhouses, and from people who have 
not yet learned to gage their worth, that one can 
get a good bargain, bringing often only three or 
four dollars a pair, and being of the best material. 
In reproduction there are on the market to-day 
plenty of good, cast-brass andirons, but they are 
expensive and cannot be purchased at less than 
seven dollars, ranging from that to a hundred 
dollars a pair, while the spun-brass kind may be 
purchased for two dollars and a half a pair. 

Andirons come in a great many heights, and in 
the olden times two sets were used, the one hold- 
ing the forestick, and the other the backlog. In 
addition to that, in the earliest American houses, 
creepers were used ; they were, in reality, of iron, 
small enough to be placed between the andirons, 
and they helped out in holding the sticks. The 
first material used for andirons was iron, and 

[209] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

we find today occasional specimens of this kind, 
many of them not particularly graceful, while 
others are very ornamental in design. There 
are the Hessian andirons which are found either 
in plain iron or decorated with bright paint ; these 
came into use about 1776 and were used to cari- 
cature the British soldiers who were very unpop- 
ular in our country. 

The most interesting of these old andirons show 
unusual shapes, a great many of them having artis- 
tic ornamentation; occasionally we find them 
with brass tops. It was fitting to use this metal, 
on account of the fire frame, which was of cast- 
iron as well, and while many of these were of 
foreign manufacture, yet not a few were fashioned 
by the village blacksmith. In the choice of 
andirons, the size of the fireplace should be con- 
sidered; the small ones should not have the 
steeple tops but small, ball pattern or some other 
design that is low enough not to crowd the fire- 
place and thus give the impression 'of bad taste. 
The large fireplaces need the high andirons, of 
which there are so many different kinds. The mod- 
ern adaptation of the Colonial has brought these 
furnishings into vogue, so that to-day it would be 
almost impossible to tell the old from the new. 

[210] 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

Shovel and tongs were much used during the 
early period, but a poker never accompanied the 
set. These appeared after the introduction of 
coal and are found among the reproductions on 
the market to-day. Another bit of the furnish- 
ings is the fender, of which there are many designs, 
some being of simple wire painted black with 
brass top and balls, while others are entirely of 
brass. The warming-pan is an appropriate acces- 
sory for this part of the room ; it should be hung 
on a peg at one side of the hearth. In addition 
to that, we find the bellows, some of which are 
most decorative in their design. The proper 
selection of this furniture gives an air of refine- 
ment to the room. 

There is a most attractive farmhouse situated 
in Dover, Massachusetts. It is owned by Mr. 
George D. Hall, and shows a series of remodelings, 
rather than a complete work, for each year an 
addition has been made which has bettered the 
initial scheme. The original farmhouse, for in- 
stance, which was built in 1729,. was a small, un- 
pretentious building that was very dilapidated in 
condition, but whose situation appealed to its 
present owner. It was his desire to obtain an 
old house that could be used if need be for an 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

all-the-year-round home; plenty of land, pictur- 
esque views, good landscape effects, and ample 
elbow room were what he especially desired. 

The house stands back from a winding country 
road in one of the most picturesque situations it 
would be possible to find. An old stone wall, 
built over a century ago by the original owner, 
still forms a boundary line to protect the grounds. 
Few estates show so many beautiful trees; they 
add greatly to the pictorial effect of the place. 
Graceful elms with swaying branches are on 
every side, while on the opposite side of the road 
pine trees are in evidence, and on either side of 
the stone wall wild shrubs have been planted. 
There has been no attempt at formal arrangement 
of the grounds, not even with the garden which 
Is at the side of the house. There has been built 
simply a picturesque lattice that separates house 
from barn and over which have been trained 
attractive vines. 

In 1907 a wing was thrown out to the south, 
with an enclosed, tiled porch and a sitting-room 
above. A small eyebrow window was placed 
in the roof to light the stairway, while the original 
porch on the west and south was carefully retained. 
Two years later this porch was removed, and a 

[212] 




As Finally Remodeled 




The Sun Parlor 
LONE TREE FARM 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

smaller entrance one was substituted. This 
showed a brick walk extending from carriage 
block to covered loggia at the south. Again in 
1914 the eyebrow window was removed, and 
dormers inserted in the roof. An open, tiled plat- 
form was built outside the enclosed loggia, and a 
sleeping-porch was added to the east sitting-room. 
A garden and pond were laid out to the south of 
the loggia, with a vista framed by two huge elms 
that were some thirty feet south of the house. 
These improvements have converted the old 
farmhouse into one of the most interesting and 
beautiful houses that can be found. 

Within the last few years the planting and gar- 
den effects have been more carefully considered ; 
the grounds have been enlarged, and at the left 
of the house an old-fashioned garden has been 
laid out with a gazing-globe for the central feature. 
The name "Lone Tree Farm" was given at the 
time of purchase from the fact that a single tree 
guarded the house at the front. This tree still 
stands but has been enhanced by the careful plant- 
ing of shrubbery on either side the driveway, 
which has now grown until it has become a par- 
tial screen for the lower floor of the farmhouse. 
Other trees have been added, and in order to 

[213] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

obtain the seclusion desired, extensive grounds 
have been purchased on the opposite side of the 
road, so that no neighbors may come near enough 
to detract from the quiet. 

In remodeling this house, an ell has been added 
at the rear for the service department, and a 
sun-parlor has been thrown out at one side. This 
makes a most attractive living-room in winter 
and, with windows removed, a cool sleeping-porch 
in the summer. The Colonial porch which has 
been added at the front is much more attractive 
than the former long veranda which is replaced 
by the sun-parlor. In painting the house, white 
has been used with green blinds, so that it is in 
reality a symphony of green and white, and as it 
stands in the center of the lot, surrounded on 
three sides by pasture land, gardens, and meadows, 
and on the front by hundreds of acres of wood- 
land, it is one of the most interesting studies in 
house remodeling to be found. 

The small hallway is simply an entrance with 
narrow, winding staircase that leads by easy 
treads to the second-story floor. In 1914, in 
ripping out these front stairs to secure the space 
above them for a small room, it was discovered 
that the old smoke-house, where in olden days 

[214] 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

hams were cured, and the back of the bake oven 
behind it had not been torn out. The former 
consisted of two Gothic arches, the taller of which 
was twenty feet in height ; the shape was depend- 
ent on the two fireplaces in adjoining rooms. 
The smoke-house is about five feet deep and when 
discovered was enclosed with an inch of greasy 
soot. An oak cross-beam with hand-wrought 
nails indicated where the hogs were hung. It 
had been left in its natural state after being 
cleaned out, and as it looked crude to one entering 
the front door, it was shut off with an old, paneled 
door, so that the hall, with stairs removed, is now 
shaped like six sides of a hexagon, the front door 
remaining where it originally was placed. 

The living-room, which is at the right of the 
hallway, has been made from two rooms. In 
this the old woodwork has been carefully retained, 
and the walls have been hung with a soft green 
that is a fine background for the many pictures 
and which brings out the beauty of the white 
woodwork. The furniture here does not follow 
the Colonial lines, for comfort has been the first 
consideration. It is shown in the large, roomy 
davenport piled with sofa pillows and the comfort- 
able armchair at one side of the open fireplace. 

[215] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Here the owner has supplied the correct fireplace 
accessories, the andirons being low with brass 
ball tops, and the shovel and tongs having the 
same finish. The mantel, while not elaborate, 
shows hand-carving and paneling. Bookcases are 
a feature of this room and are found everywhere. 

Opening from the living-room is the glass- 
enclosed sun-parlor which has been tiled, and in 
which is a modern fireplace of bricks laid in white 
mortar. Over it Is a bas-relief. The andirons 
are high, of modern type, showing fleur-de-lis 
design, and are in keeping with the fireplace. 
Willow furniture is used in order to give the 
sun-parlor a light touch which could not have been 
done if the Colonial idea had been carried out. 
It is an ideal summer living-room, being sunny 
most of the day. Then, too, its location is well 
chosen, as it overlooks the old-fashionedjgarden 
and commands vistas cut in trees and shrubbery. 

The den, used extensively by the owner, is a 
typical man's room. Built-in bookcases and 
window-seats give it a most livable look, while 
pictures of the hunt line the wall, and a hunting 
scene is used as a frieze. It is placed in a sunny 
part of the house so as to catch as much light as 
possible. 

[216] 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

The dining-room was made from a part of the 
old kitchen and strangely enough shows fine 
paneling of white pine, which has been carefully 
preserved and makes a background for the mantel 
ornaments. The mantel shelf is narrow and 
extends around the whole fireplace; the old 
chimney has been partly built in for modern use, 
while the andirons are very unique reproductions. 
The old crane has been retained, as have the pot- 
hooks and iron kettle, while the old brick oven, 
now never used, is a memento of the days when 
our grandmothers cooked with great logs of wood, 
heating the oven once a week in order to do the 
family baking. The furniture is of the Colonial 
type, while the rugs are modern but blend with 
the scheme color of the room. It is large, well- 
lighted by many windows, and divided by an 
alcove only from the living-room which adjoins it. 

Every room in this house has been carefully 
considered with regard to view, and one can stand 
at any window and look out upon a different 
phase of country life, for trees and shrubbery are 
so arranged that the grounds lend themselves 
admirably to pictorial effects upon which no 
neighboring house intrudes. 

Up-stairs in the ell of the house, over the sun- 

[217] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

parlor, is a large sitting-room. It has been so 
designed that it faces three different directions 
and is lighted by a group of long windows at 
one side. In this room the sunlight lays practi- 
cally all day, making it a bright, livable room, 
where Colonial features have not been considered. 
To be sure there are several pieces, such as the 
old-time work-table, but modern ideas mainly 
have been introduced. On either side of the 
cluster of windows are built-in bookcases which 
have been painted white to match the trim and 
are filled with well-read books. Between these 
bookcases is a long window-seat, beneath which 
drawers have been built which are very convenient 
for holding unfinished work. The hangings are 
of muslin with blue over-drapery, harmonizing 
with the color scheme of the room. A large, open 
fireplace on the opposite side provides for a cheery 
wood fire, more especially on stormy days, for this 
house is one that is lived in all the year round, so 
that heating and lighting had to be taken into 
consideration. 

In addition to this room there are three cham- 
bers, two bathrooms, and a closet on the floor. 
Each one of these chambers has been given a 
different treatment. One of the most interesting 

[218] 




The Living Room 




A Corner in the Dining Room 
LONE TREE FARM 




The Sewing Room 




The Den 
LONE TREE FARM 



THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE 

shows fine woodwork in the paneled doors and 
also in the small closet that is over the fireplace, 
a favorite place for a closet to be introduced in 
the early days. The fireplace is not a large one, 
and the andirons are small-sized steeple tops. 
The bed is an old slat bed, while every piece of 
furniture is in keeping with the period. 

Take it all in all, one rarely finds a farmhouse 
that shows more attractive features than this 
one, where comfort, light, and view have all been 
carefully considered. It is perfectly available 
for an all-the-year-round home, as it is not too 
far from the station to allow its occupants to go 
back and forth to business every day. 



[219] 



CHAPTER XX 

THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

WHEN you plan to remodel your house, there is 
nothing that should receive much more careful 
attention than the closets. It is doubtful, that is, 
if the house is of the earliest period, if you will 
find many. Our emigrant ancestors did not have 
as many clothes or table appointments as we re- 
quire to-day. The few of the former they pos- 
sessed were hung on pegs or disposed of in chests ; 
the dishes were placed on racks, thus eliminating 
the necessity for closet room in houses where 
every available bit of space was utilized for living 
purposes. 

In all probability you will find corner cupboards 
which will be more or less elaborate in design. 
The best examples show a shell treatment. The 
earliest corner cupboards were clumsy affairs, 
being movable; later on they were built into the 
house and employed to hold family china and 
glassware. There was a great variety in these 
closets, some being fitted up with shelves only, 

[220] 



THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

while others were divided in two, the underneath 
part being used for books and odds and ends. 

Fortunate is the house owner who finds in his 
old house one or more of these old corner cup- 
boards. To be sure they can be reproduced ; 
but how much better are the originals. Dig out 
the old plaster, rip open the sides of the parti- 
tions, if you think there is any chance of odd 
closets being hidden away between, and remember 
that in many old houses there are secret closets, 
and it will pay you to tap the wall space to dis- 
cover their whereabouts. Sometimes they are 
hidden under the flooring, and again the space 
between the windows is used for this purpose. 
It is always well to open them, for who knows 
what valuable heirlooms may be hidden inside. 
* There are plenty of spaces where new closets 
can be introduced as, for instance, the end of the 
dining-room, where a glassed-in china closet with 
an arched top and half-domed interior makes an 
excellent place to display the old china and glass. 
Panels in the wainscot can be utilized, more 
especially when they are under the first step of 
the staircase. These are most convenient for 
filing newspapers or any magazines that are kept 
for reference. 

[221] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

If the hallway is paneled, it is a very easy matter 
to put an invisible door into one of the panels. 
This can be used for the coat closet, with a low 
shelf underneath to hold hats; and on the floor 
partitions can be made to hold rubbers. On 
each side of the chimney a great deal of waste 
space can be converted into bookcases, with little, 
leaded, glass doors. Above the mantel, set in the 
chimney-breast, will be found spaces which even 
in the early days were devoted to closets. They 
are cut in a panel and were used to protect china 
or old pewter from the dust. Sometimes three 
of these closets have been found built into the 
fireplaces, all of which were used to hold the house- 
hold china. 

In the upper part of the house, under the attic 
stairs, can generally be found places that can be 
made into linen closets, but it must be remem- 
bered that if no ventilation is allowed, cloth will 
become yellowed, so by all means have brass 
ventilators in the doors. Whatever the purpose 
of the closet, its location should be carefully 
considered, the shape, the place, and the cost, 
so that as many as possible can be introduced. 

There is no doubt that the majority of old-time 
farmhouses readily adapt themselves to modern 

[222] 



THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

requirements and show possibilities that allow of 
most attractive development. The result of work- 
ing out certain possibilities is shown in the Walter 
Scott Hopkins house at Reading, Massachusetts. 
It is a long, rambling house that seemed when 
first purchased wholly lacking in artistic quali- 
ties, and it was not until after careful deliberation 
that the owner realized that the old farmhouse, be- 
neath its coating of accumulated dust, possessed 
a wealth of fine features that were well worth 
developing. 

The house had been used for two families, and 
each section was separate and distinct, although 
under the same roof. It was built in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century and contains fine 
woodwork, better than that found in most 
houses of that day. All the distinctive features 
of the Colonial architecture were evident in this 
old farmhouse, where unbroken roof-line, close- 
cropped eaves, and small-paned windows were 
placed with fc mathematical precision, and the 
severely simple exterior was in strict conformity 
with the period. 

In remodeling the house, the original outlines 
were carefully preserved, and the additions were 
made to conform. The small, ugly entrances 



[REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

which had marred the exterior of the house were 
torn down and replaced by windows, so that only 
a single entrance was left. A very attractive 
porch with sloping roof-line was supported by 
solid but unornamented columns. In the roof 
dormer windows were cut, both at the front and 
rear. This was to make the attic practical for 
living purposes by affording sufficient light and 
air. At one side of the house, in place of the 
woodshed, an out-of-door living-room was added, 
broad and low of build, with a sloping roof that 
harmonized in outline with the main roof. At 
the rear a small addition of the deep, bay-window 
type was added; this was to secure extra space 
for the newly arranged dining-room and the 
remodeled kitchen. Two small porches were built 
in addition to the new trellised entrance, giving a 
simple dignity to the old house, which has been 
painted white with green blinds. 

The grounds, rough and unkempt, with a stone 
wall defining a part of them, were beautified to 
afford a fitting environment for the new home, 
and to-day smooth sweeps of lawn and judicious 
groupings of shrubbery add in no small degree 
to the exterior attractiveness of the old home- 
Stead. A path of rough, irregular flagstones leads 

[224] 








bO 



PQ 



w 
a: 



THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

to the main entrance, and a similar path winds 
from the street to a gateway in the outlying wall 
and opens into a charming garden plot that has 
been laid out just beyond the outdoor living- 
room. Planting has been judiciously carried out, 
and the estate has been brought to a fine state of 
cultivation, with the result that it has become an 
attractive setting for the remodeled house, which 
stands on the slope of a hill. 

The interior required a great deal of altering, 
including much tearing down of partitions to suit 
present-day needs and to make broad, spacious 
rooms out of the tiny spaces which sufficed a cen- 
tury or more ago. There was installation of plumb- 
ing, lighting and heating devices, in order to 
meet the demands of modern life, and the New 
England attic was made over into servants' 
quarters that were sufficiently ample for a large 
country house. 

A leaded glass door that shows fanlight above 
opens into a broad, low-ceilinged hall. At one 
side is a large fireplace, and a heavy beam crosses 
the ceiling. To the right is the new dining-room, 
to the left the living-room, and from the end of 
the hall opens the den, a passageway connecting 
this with the servants' department. In all the 

[225] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

rooms every detail of the old-fashioned construc- 
tion has been retained. The fine woodwork 
shows the original paneling; the great fireplaces 
with their chimney closets have been preserved 
intact, and even the old, hand-made hardware 
has been retained for present-day use. Cupboards 
were discovered, when the coating of plaster and 
paper were removed, and are serving the same 
purpose in the twentieth-century home that they 
did years ago in the Colonial one; and the new 
cupboards that have been added seem to fit in as 
if they had always been there. The house in its 
entirety shows many points that are of unusual 
interest. The arrangement of the windows is 
particularly good, as are the chimneys, while the 
sweeping roof-line at the rear carries out the old 
contour and yet has been slightly changed to 
afford light and air to chambers inside. The 
semblance of the original farmhouse has been 
left unaltered, while the really radical changes 
have been tempered with a regard for the preser- 
vation of the old-time atmosphere. 

The living-room shows a typical old farmhouse 
room. The woodwork here is particularly good; 
there is a wainscot three feet high that comes above 
the lower sill of the window frame, and which is 

[226] 



THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

paneled in doors and over the mantel. The fire- 
place has remained unchanged, being a Colonial 
one of huge size. The early period is evidenced 
in the absence of a mantel, which brings out the 
lines of the wonderful old woodwork to the greatest 
advantage. The andirons, instead of following 
the sixteenth or seventeenth-century type, repre- 
sent griffins. A nightcap closet, introduced in 
the middle panel over the fireplace, shows the 
original H hinges of iron. When the house was 
first purchased, these were hidden away, and only 
when the original woodwork was reached were 
they discovered, restored, treated to a coat of 
white paint, and adapted to present use. This 
is a feature that is rarely found in the remodeled 
farmhouse of to-day. The walls are hung with a 
one-toned paper of soft coloring, while plain 
muslin curtains shade the windows. The old 
floor was re-laid with narrow boards over which 
are laid Daghestan rugs; Mission furniture is 
used. The lighting fixtures are of the Colonial 
type and placed at the sides only. The room 
contains many well-placed windows which give 
to it light and air. 

The dining-room is at the rear of the living-room 
and opens into it, being connected with a wide 

[227] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

opening so that, if need be, the rooms can be used 
as one, giving plenty of space for large dinner 
parties. Here the woodwork has been restored 
to its original charming simplicity and painted 
white to match that of the living-room. The 
walls have been covered with a dark-toned paper, 
and at one end, opposite the living-room, an al- 
coved recess has been added in order that its group 
of windows may give better lighting to the dining- 
room which is exposed to the outside on two sides 
only. The floors of this room, too, have been 
re-laid and handsomely polished, and are an 
effective foil to the domestic rug which is used. 
Here, also, the furniture follows the Mission 
style, in order to be in keeping with that of the 
living-room. The lighting fixtures are of the 
same type found in the adjoining room and are 
also side lights, considered more effective because 
softer than a ceiling light. 

In order to let the light in from the hallway, 
windows were inserted which follow the early 
window casing in their plain style and contain 
small panes, there being no elaboration. They 
are placed on either side of the entrance door, 
which is glassed in the upper portion. Here, as 
all through the house, the early style of small- 

[228] 




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Two Views of the Dining Room 
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 



THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE 

paned windows has been retained. There are 
many reasons why these are advantageous : not 
only do they follow the period in which the house 
was built, carrying out details correctly, but when 
broken they are more easily replaced, though 
much harder to keep clean. These windows are 
usually placed near the ceiling, being designed 
for light and ornamentation, rather than as 
outlooks. The ornamental design which has been 
carried out in the arrangement of windows and 
door is unusual even in Colonial houses, where 
the low stud and the beamed ceiling helped much 
towards effectiveness. 

This room was originally the kitchen and bed- 
room combined; The old fireplace has been pre- 
served, as has the brick oven, and over it is a 
series of small closets such as are rarely found. 
There is a central closet and a smaller one on 
either side. Here the H hinges have been retained 
and also the old-time latches. 

On the opposite side of the hall is the parlor, 
which corresponds in size to the living-room and 
shows equally fine woodwork. This was origi- 
nally the parlor in the farther side of the double 
house and has been left practically its original 
shape and size, for in this part of the house very 

[229] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

little remodeling has been done. The old fire- 
place has been retained at the farther end of the 
room. 

At the rear of this, what was once the sitting- 
room has been converted into an office. Beyond 
this room, the original kitchen on that side of 
the house and the shed have been thrown into a 
most attractive summer room. 

In the story above there were formerly two large 
bedrooms on either side. These remain practically 
as they were and are furnished with Colonial 
pieces. The old attic, which originally was used 
for clutter, is now remodeled into servants' quar- 
ters and by the addition of the dormer windows 
has been made into comfortable rooms which 
can be kept cool during the warm weather by the 
cross draughts. 

The architects were very wise in remodeling 
this house so as to show its extremely simple 
lines, for they give it individuality and character 
and accentuate certain features that were neces- 
sary to create of it a home for one family. There 
is no doubt that the alterations have been planned 
and executed with rare taste and discrimination. 



[230] 



CHAPTER XXI 
HENRY w. WRIGHT'S HOUSE 

PEOPLE who possess old pieces of furniture 
often have very erroneous ideas as to their real 
age and call everything "Colonial" for want of 
a better name. They assume, that is, if they have 
not made a careful study of the subject, that 
anything belonging to their great grandmother 
must be at least two hundred years old. But, 
for instance, sideboards were not made two 
hundred years ago, and Chippendale never de- 
signed one ; the nearest he came to it was a serv- 
ing-table. People get an impression that he 
included this piece of furniture in his productions, 
but they are wrong in their assumption. 

The revival of interest in "antiques" has caused 
many an heirloom that has been relegated to 
attic or storehouse to be brought out, renovated, 
and given a prominent place. Can we assign to 
each ancient article an approximate date or maker, 
it becomes much more valuable than the daintiest 
piece of up-to-date furniture. Worm-holes are a 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

sign of age and a proof of guarantee, that is, if 
the pieces are family possessions. There is so 
much cunning workmanship in remodeled furni- 
ture that this does not apply to every bit, though 
apparently original. It must be remembered 
that very few furnishings were brought over by 
the colonists, and the early houses were very 
scantily supplied. 

The oldest furniture was made of oak; it was 
very heavy and showed more or less elaboration 
in carving. Chests made at this early period are 
often found in families where they have been care- 
fully treasured since they were brought over the 
sea packed with clothing. 

The three leading cabinetmakers were Chippen- 
dale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton. Chippendale 
was the earliest but was not appreciated until 
after his death. His masterpieces, which com- 
bined the Chinese, French, and Dutch models 
with ideas originated in his own brain, were so 
perfectly constructed that we find them in a fine 
state of preservation even to-day. 

Lighter and more dainty in character were the 
designs of Hepplewhite, who cultivated a freedom 
of line such as was adopted by his predecessor, 
but who banished the Chippendale heaviness. 



HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE 

The Prince of Wales feather was a favorite design 
of his. Carved drapery, the belle-flower, and 
wheat were often used by him. A distinguish- 
ing mark was usually given to the backs of his 
chairs, which are either oval, heart, or shield- 
shaped. They were finished in japanned work 
and often inlaid in light and dark wood. The 
legs were generally much more slender than the 
Chippendale and often ended in what is known as 
a spade-foot. 

Sheraton, who succeeded him, took advantage 
of the ideas of his forerunners and revealed a 
still more delicate touch, although he retained 
many of Hepplewhite's ideas which he strength- 
ened and improved. The shield is rarely if ever 
found in a chair of his make, which can be dis- 
tinguished by its rectangular back and its slen- 
der uprights, ranging in number from four to 
seven. The legs show a great many different 
styles, the best being straight, while carved, 
fluted, and twisted ones are also found. The 
general trend of fancy in those days was towards 
light, elegant designs and showy decorations. 
Sheraton indulged his fancy for brilliant coloring 
in the most gorgeously painted decorations, com- 
bining them with inlay and carving. Next he 

[233] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

introduced white and gold, following the French 
style, and still later the brass inlay so fashionable 
in Napoleon's day. Caned work was used for 
seats and was varied by coverings of needlework, 
morocco, striped and variegated horsehair, dam- 
asks, and fine printed silks. The curved piece 
which Sheraton introduced about 1800 remained 
the favorite chair pattern for a century, although 
it lost the brass mounts which he at first used. 
There is not much danger of confounding the 
three great masters, for each produced an entirely 
different style of furniture. 

After the French Revolution, the furniture 
became markedly different in style ; Greek models 
were once more popular, and the tripod became 
a favorite support. Coarse woods and mahogany 
were freely used and were carved and profusely 
gilded. 

The Empire furniture which is so popular to- 
day was heavy and stiff in its early period, particu- 
larly so when of English make, but under Ameri- 
can manipulation the beauty of the wood showed 
to the best advantage. Yet there is a certain 
appeal in its solidity and massiveness. When 
the darkened mahogany came into fashion an 
opportunity arose for the revival of brass and 

[234] 



HENRY W. WRIGHTS HOUSE 

wood that lent charm to the court of the Empress 
Josephine. Few good examples of the Empire 
style are found in remodeled farmhouses. 

Old furniture is most interesting, and if you 
intend to furnish your remodeled farmhouse with 
it, do not fail to make a careful study of the sub- 
ject before attempting it. It covers a wide field 
of makers, styles, and decorations, but the modern 
home affords ample scope for the employment of 
these old pieces, many of which have been brought 
down from the attic. 

When Salem was in her highest and proudest 
days of mercantile prosperity, when her wharves 
were bustling scenes of unlading and shipping, 
when her harbor was a gathering place of quaintly 
rigged vessels, and great East-Indiamen labored 
under clouds of canvas, then from the holds of 
these cumbersome ships were discharged cargoes 
of rich furniture, teakwood, and sandalwood 
brought from every land. The wealth of these 
incoming treasures has made the quiet city 
prominent even until to-day. Here may be found 
many old heirlooms, and in the homes of the 
descendants of old shipmasters we frequently 
find rare pieces. These show to advantage in 
various remodeled farmhouses that have been 

[235] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

adopted as all-the-year-round homes by the last 
generation. 

Many fine old pieces are found in the home of 
Mr. Henry W. Wright at Danvers, Massachusetts. 
Some of them are of exceptional value and rare 
examples such as are seldom seen even in the 
homes of collectors. The farmhouse itself stands 
close to the road, a simple, plain, unostentatious 
building, yet showing good lines and careful 
treatment. The soft gray of the exterior and the 
white trim blend harmoniously with the green of 
the grass and the bright-colored flowers of the 
little garden. At the front of the house at each 
side stand tall elms that cast a grateful shade over 
the old farmhouse. 

The entrance porch has been made square, its 
lattice, designed for the support of vines, taking 
away the plain look of the exterior. The win- 
dows are well spaced, and the small panes have 
been retained. At the side of the house a porch 
has been thrown out which can be glassed in as a 
living-room or sun-parlor during the winter and 
used as an out-of-door veranda during the summer 
months. It is so situated that it commands a 
picturesque view of the rolling country which is 
on every side. 

[236] 




ctf 




The Living Room 




The Dining Room 
THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE 



HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE 

The big chimney, that was formerly the central 
feature of the house, has given way to two smaller 
ones, one on either end. The sloping roof has 
been treated to new shingles, while the exterior 
has been left practically as it was when built. 
The addition of green blinds has done much to 
soften what would otherwise be a rather bare 
exterior. The house is of the type that shows 
four rooms in each story. 

The hallway has a castellated paper in gray and 
white and a winding staircase with box stairs and 
simple balusters and posts painted white and a 
mahogany rail. It is a simple little hall, small, 
compact, and truly Colonial in its type, with 
its Dutch armchair showing pierced slats of Chip- 
pendale influence. This chair was probably made 
about the time the house was built which was in 
the early part of the eighteenth century, the date 
not being definitely known. 

At the left of the hallway is the living-room, 
which is of the simple farmhouse type, lacking a 
wainscot but containing a simple mopboard and 
paneled door. The wide boards in the flooring 
have been retained here as well as in the dining- 
room, plain-edged boards that, while laid close 
together, still show a crack between. This living- 

[237] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

room was in the early days used as living-room 
and bedroom ; the space at the farther end, which 
was used as a closet into which the bed folded 
during the daytime, is now utilized as a bookcase 
and makes an interesting feature. The slat-back 
chair beside the bookcase is the most valuable 
type of its period, being made about 1750. It 
shows a turned knob. In chairs of this kind, 
which were more commonly used during the first 
part of the eighteenth century, the number of 
slats varied, the most common having three, while 
the rarest have five. 

The gate-legged table is a good example, while 
the Chippendale chair is unusual, showing very 
graceful effect, with wonderfully delicate carving, 
and being of the best design. An equally rare 
example of a Hepplewhite chair, which is beauti- 
fully carved, is contained in the same room. In 
addition to these are banister and Sheraton chairs, 
as well as a fine example of girandole, uncommon 
from the fact that there is a pair exactly alike, 
and they are seen one on either side of the room. 

Opposite the living-room is the dining-room, 
and here the same correct furnishing has been 
used. The plain wainscot is of the early type, 
the lighting has Colonial fixtures, while the chairs 

[238] 



HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE 

are painted Sheraton, being most unusual in that 
there is a whole set of the same pattern which 
are all originals. A wonderfully fine example of a 
mahogany dining-table has been utilized as a 
serving-table, and the silver is all of the Colonial 
pattern. Here one finds the low stud, but none 
of the exposed beams often found in old houses. 

At the rear of the dining-room is the kitchen 
which is equipped with modern appliances. Lead- 
ing from the dining-room at the left is a small 
room which has been fitted up as a music-room 
and den combined. It is a most livable room, 
there being no stiffness or formality in the arrange- 
ment of the furniture, and each piece of furniture 
proves a fitting foil for its mate. The wall hang- 
ings are not of the Colonial type ; they are plain 
gray and bring out to advantage the setting of 
furniture, pictures, and ornaments in the room. 

In the upper hall is found a fine old carved 
chest of the Jacobean period. This is considered 
one of the best examples of chests in existence, 
being wonderfully carved, of solid oak, and prob- 
ably used originally as a dower chest. Leading 
off from the hallway are four large, square cham- 
bers, each one correctly furnished with Colonial 
pieces, many of which are family heirlooms. 

[239] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

Here, where modern lighting has been introduced, 
the Colonial type of fixtures has been carefully 
maintained. In all the house there is no central 
light, all the lights being at the side. In the 
upper story as well as the lower, the wide flooring 
has been retained, as it was found in such excellent 
condition it could easily be used. 

The steeple-topped andirons- in the simple 
fireplace, the painted mirror, and the old brass 
candlesticks of one chamber are most appropri- 
ately chosen. The Field bed has a canopy of 
white with ball fringe which is an exact replica 
of the old-time draping. Rag mats have been 
used for the floor; they are not the common 
braided ones but woven rugs which are more 
suitable. Alcoved recesses are shown on either 
side of the fireplace ; in one of them a six-legged, 
high chest of drawers with china steps, designed 
about 1720, shows drop handles, and is ornamented 
with rare old family china. On the opposite 
side is a wing or Martha Washington chair of 
the Sheraton type. The bureau, 1815, is a fine 
example of the period, while the swell-front, 
Hepplewhite bureau with the oval, pressed-brass 
handles and the painted mirror above are in 
conformity with the general scheme. A banister- 

[240] 



HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE 

backed chair with a rush bottom stands at one side 
of the bed. 

Very unusual is the Colonial wall-paper which 
is found in a second chamber, while eighteenth- 
century andirons are used in the fireplace which 
is still of the original size and which shows a 
plain Colonial mantel. In this chamber, as in 
the other, there is a very plain wainscot of boards 
placed horizontally. An Empire bed which has 
wonderfully beautiful carving is shown in this 
room, and also a very unusual chair known 
as a comb-back rocker and dating about 1750* 
The rugs here are of the Arts and Crafts style, 
while the bureau and writing-table have cabriole 
legs and secret drawers, the central one with 
rising sun or fan carving. 

Every piece in this house is genuine, for they 
all are heirlooms or pieces that have been care- 
fully chosen, since the owner is an expert in deter- 
mining period and correct types. It is a well- 
known fact that to-day one has to be a careful 
student of furniture not to be deceived. The 
popularity of the Colonial period, more especially 
since the vogue of the modified Colonial house, 
has led many a fakir to reproduce the lines of 
the genuine antique. Skilful workmen are em- 

[241] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

ployed to manufacture these pieces, and they are 
able, by imitating worm-holes, dentation, and 
other distinguishing marks, to put on the market 
pieces whose genuineness even the antique dealer 
is puzzled to decide. 

All through the country the value of antiques 
is becoming better and better known, so that it 
is far more difficult to obtain bargains than it 
was even five years ago. To-day, so great has 
grown the demand, people who before were una- 
ware of the worth of their heirlooms have been 
led to overestimate their value and they now 
ask fabulous sums for pieces hitherto neglected 
and ignored. 



[242] 





Two Noteworthy Chambers 
THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE 




X 

U 



o 

ffi 

UJ 

X 

h 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

WHEN your house is remodeled, be careful what 
kind of paint you use for both outside and inside 
finish. A variation from the right tone will mar 
the whole effect. So much depends on this that 
one should not copy from houses of to-day but 
turn back to the style of a century ago, so that 
in this particular, at least, the house shall corre- 
spond with the old Colonial idea. 

Few, if any, care to use a weathered exterior, 
that is, unless the scientifically treated shingles 
that will soon turn a silver gray are employed. 
There are two reasons why your house should 
be painted : one is that it preserves the wood and 
if rightly treated is fireproof; the second is that 
it gives the finish a far better appearance than 
it would have without paint. Every house needs 
paint of some kind to improve its appearance, 
whether it be oil paint or stain. 

There are many different brands found to-day, 
and they are of every conceivable color, so that 

[243] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

you have a wide range of choice. It is always safe 
to use one made by a reliable concern or one hand- 
mixed, if both white lead and linseed oil are 
absolutely pure. There is nothing more variable 
in quality than paint, and even experts are puzzled 
at times and it is necessary to have a chemical 
analysis in order to determine between good and 
bad. 

For exterior use the proper kind should be a 
mixture of pure white lead and linseed oil or pure 
zinc white and linseed oil. Manufacturers, more 
especially those of white lead paints, will insist 
that theirs is the only kind to use, and the zinc 
paint producers will do likewise, but a reliable 
dealer or architect will inform you correctly. One 
of the first colors to be used on any house is 
white, in all probability there is nothing a& 
durable as this. The reason for it is that the 
ingredients used have greater wearing qualities 
than any of the other pigments. There is a 
complaint that it is apt to yellow with age and 
become discolored, but in reality it remains 
unchanged longer than almost any other color. 
Green blinds secure the. best effect, or trellises that 
relieve the monotony of the white. This the old 
farmers realized, and it is one of the reasons why 

[244] 



THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

it was so much used. If your house is shingled, 
there are a great many shades of gray that need 
a white trim, and there is no color that harmonizes 
with every other as well as this. 

There are a great many reliable stains for 
shingles; do not let the painter mix the stain 
himself, because that carefully prepared by a 
manufacturer is generally superior both in color 
and durability. In mixing these stains, both 
creosote and oil are used, there being on the market 
to-day excellent brands of both kinds. i 

The repainting of the country house is a neces- 
sary evil that recurs periodically. We tire of 
one color as we weary of an old dress, and this 
leads to a different tone of coloring each time. 
For instance, the white house is changed possibly 
to a Colonial yellow or a gray, and with its new 
coat it seems to take on a new lease of life. The 
fall of the year is the best time for the painting, 
as the dry October weather is especially suited 
for good results. During the summer months 
there are insects flying about and too much dust. 
By October the outside has had time to cool after 
the heat and is in good condition for treatment. 

The time to paint is before the house gets shabby, 
when the paint is powdery or porous. It can be 

[2451 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

tested with either a knife or the finger, and if 
the old paint chips off, soaks up water, or can be 
rubbed off like a powder with the finger, it no 
longer protects the wood and needs another coat. 
With this covering of paint, wood will last prac- 
tically forever, and as lumber is expensive, it is 
greater economy to keep your house properly 
painted. 

The cost of painting is a serious problem to 
many house owners and is never alluded to by 
an agent when selling a house ; to the novice it does 
not occur, so eager is he to secure for himself a 
new home. At the end of the second year, its 
freshness is dimmed through exposure to wind 
and storm, and at the end of the third season, it 
is shabby and needs a new covering. In attempt- 
ing to figure the cost, it is necessary to ascertain 
the square feet on the outside. Any painter has 
a rule for this, making allowances for errors. 
Windows and doors are considered as plain sur- 
faces that are to be treated to paint even though 
only the sills and sides are in need of it. 

Good exterior paint costs from three to five 
dollars a gallon, and a painter can put on one 
hundred square yards in a day for the first coat 
and seventy-five for the second. This gives the 

l2 4 6] 



THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

house owner a little idea of what it will cost, 
although it is best to make a regular bargain with 
the architect to cover this expense. 

For interior finish, white is always preferable. 
It seems to be the proper treatment for any 
Colonial home. To be sure, if you are planning 
for a den, a dark color can be used and also a stain 
for the kitchen part of the house. 

In searching for a farmhouse to be converted 
into a country home, Mr. Rowland S. Chandler 
of Boston chanced upon an old house at Need- 
ham, Massachusetts, that seemed to meet his re- 
quirements. It was a square-framed house, two 
stories and a half in height, with a kitchen ell at 
the rear. It was not handsome but quite ordi- 
nary in appearance and without any unusual 
exterior features. It was not even a seventeenth- 
century house but was built in 1801, and it was 
in such good condition and the frame was so sound 
that it hardly deserved the term "old." 

The farmhouse fronted the southwest, so that 
its main rooms were dark, with little sunlight, 
while the rear was flooded with light and very 
cheerful. There were delightful views from this 
part of the house which overlooked a merry, 
gurgling brook, the mill-pond, and the distant 

[247J 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

hills. But this idea had not entered the minds 
of the former owners, who had given little con- 
sideration to the subject and with no forethought 
had inserted only two small windows, one in the 
kitchen and the other in a bedroom. Evidently 
their idea was to sacrifice view to arrangement, for 
to their minds, houses should be built parallel 
to the street and with the "best room" at the 
front. 

The grounds showed little care, but in remodeling 
a brick-paved terrace was arranged at the left 
just outside the original parlor. An old-fashioned 
garden was planted near the kitchen end, and a 
trellis enclosed the clothes-yard. The grounds 
in front of the house have been laid out in well- 
trimmed lawns, while a brick walk now leads from 
the sidewalk to the house. A feature of the house 
is a large, overhanging elm which affords shade 
and picturesqueness ; fresh shrubbery has been 
attractively planted, and vines trained to clamber 
over latticed work and the trellised porch which 
is at the front of the house. Dormer windows 
have been added to the roof, and the simple little 
farmhouse has been converted into a most attrac- 
tive all-the-year-round home. 

In the process of remodeling, the original house 
[248] 




D 
O 

ffi 



X 





I 

w 
S 




The Hall 
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 



THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

was left unchanged, and additions were depended 
upon for development. A good-sized porch with 
brick floor and high-backed settles at the side 
replaced the unattractive, old-time entrance, while 
the dormers relieved the long, monotonous roof- 
line and afforded light to the apartment constructed 
from the formerly unfinished attic space. Just 
outside the original parlor, beside the shed space, 
an addition has been built that runs midway 
of the shed to the line of the chimney in the parlor, 
and without a large covered veranda is added. 
To the kitchen ell an addition of about four feet 
was made to provide space for a vestibule within 
the new back door and also to secure extra space 
at one side of the room so that a window might 
be inserted. 

Due attention was paid to the rear, in the matter 
of windows, and here were laid out the rooms 
which would be most frequently used. In conse- 
quence of the rearrangement, the interior is prac- 
tically wholly changed. The shed was remodeled 
into a charming sewing-room that opens at one 
side on to a veranda, and the new addition was 
combined with the little bedroom and a small 
portion from the parlor to secure space for a 
library. This made possible a doorway to the 

[249] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

dining-room and sewing-room, and a broad open 
space to the living-room. 

The old-time parlor showed two deep closets 
beside the fireplace. One of these was torn out, 
a window was inserted in the outer wall, and a 
seat was built beneath it. The other was made 
into an opening into the library. This arrange- 
ment secured additional light and at the same 
time permitted a glimpse of the picturesque rear 
view. 

In the dining-room several alterations were 
made, resulting in a complete change in shape 
and size. Oblique walls replace the two rear 
corners, one containing the doorway leading to 
the library, and the other affording entrance and 
furnishing some space for the china closet which 
was inserted between the dining-room and the 
kitchen. The single window on the southeast 
was replaced by a semi-octagonal bow recess. 
This was fitted with small lights of glass and affords 
space for the grouping of many plants and inci- 
dentally adds a touch of distinct picturesqueness. 

The kitchen received its share of consideration 
during the process of remodeling, resulting in 
the substitution of a pleasant, convenient apart- 
ment in place of the conspicuous, ill-lighted, 

[250] 



THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

original one. There was added at the right of 
the vestibule a built-in refrigerator, and about 
the side walls of the room newly built-in cupboards 
were grouped. 

Two important changes in the body of the 
house consisted in the enlargement of the cellar, 
made necessary by the greater space required 
for the modern heating apparatus, and in the 
substitution of the original, small-paned type of 
window for the two panes which had been in- 
serted to take the place of the old ones. 

The entrance hall at the front of the house is a 
small apartment hung with landscape paper of the 
Colonial period ; a staircase with one landing and a 
half turn in its flight, showing white balusters and 
mahogany top, leads to the second story. In 
the lighting, the Colonial idea is attained by 
the use of a lantern, while under the stairs is a 
closet opened by a brass door-pull. 

At the left is the living-room, with dull red 
hangings and a white wainscot that provides a 
fitting background for the wonderful old mahog- 
any found in this room. There are some rare 
Dutch chairs sometimes known as Queen Anne 
from the opening that is found on either side of 
the central slat, designed about 1710, and the 

[251] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

earliest of that design. There is a refreshing 
simplicity and a dignified air to this room, brought 
about in part by the simple Colonial fireplace 
with its steeple-topped andirons, and the well- 
spaced windows that let plenty of sunlight into 
the apartment. 

On the opposite side of the room is the dining- 
room which is finished with tapestry hanging in 
dark green, brown, and yellow, with a design of 
pine cones and needles that contrasts prettily 
with the white wainscot. A slight reduction in 
the height of the window casing affords an oppor- 
tunity to carry the wall-paper and moldings 
across the windows and doors, thus avoiding the 
cramped effect of too high window arrangement. 
The original floor has been replaced by a new 
one, and a cheerful atmosphere has been given 
to the room by opening a semicircular bay up for 
a small conservatory which can be closed or opened 
at pleasure by the use of glass doors. 
. The library has been finished in dark brown 
with low bookcases extending around part of the 
room, corresponding in color with the woodwork. 
The hangings are tan color, and the furniture is 
partly Colonial and partly modern, to meet the 
demands of a den. This is one of the pleasantest 

[252] 




The Sun-Parlor 




The Living Room 
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 




The Den 




The Kitchen 
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 



THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE 

rooms in the house, having a delightful outlook; 
combined with the sewing-room and living-room 
opening from it, it makes a charming and con- 
veniently arranged interior. 

The kitchen at the rear of the house has been 
altered with the idea of saving steps. This 
is shown in the numberless closets at the right, 
for flour barrel and other supplies. At the left 
is the kitchen cupboard, while the china is in 
the built-in closet above and the groceries in the 
drawers below. The sink has a shelf underneath 
to hold the dishpan and drainer. The whole 
color tone, including the beamed ceiling, is a dark 
stain with lighter wall finish. 

This house is an interesting example of success- 
ful and artistic remodeling, the interior and exterior 
being in harmony and giving the result of a com- 
fortable and attractive home which was secured 
at much less cost than if an entirely new house 
had been built. 

The houses described in this book cover but 
the merest fraction of the homes and summer 
places evolved from old-fashioned farmhouses. 
They are scattered broadcast through New Eng- 
land, sometimes isolated on roads which still 

[253] 



REMODELED FARMHOUSES 

retain their country atmosphere, sometimes sur- 
rounded by the town which has outgrown its 
early limits, and sometimes the center of a large 
estate. Each has Its individual charm, its special 
beauties, but wherever found these remodeled 
farmhouses testify to the stanchness of early 
American workmanship and to the appreciation 
of modern Americans for their forefathers' handi- 
work. Certainly many a one of the latter " builded 
better than he knew." 



[254] 



INDEX 



Adams family, 128. 

Hannah, 122. 
Adden, W. P., 180. 
Adden house, W. P., 180-186. 

age, 181. 

chimney, 182-183. 

hardware, 184, 185. 

location, 180. 

porches, 183-184. 

remodeling, 182-186. 

type, 181. 

Andirons, n, 12, 68, 125, 194, 
208-210, 216, 217, 219, 
227, 240, 241, 252. 

Hessian, 210. 
Arches, 81, 119. 

Attics, 6, 164, 186, 224, 225, 
230. 

Balusters, 114-115. 

Barns, 2, 25, 65-70, 137, 191, 

196-197. 
Barnard house, George ., 169- 

176. 

breakfast-room, 173. 
color scheme, 175. 
den, 172. 
dining-room, 174. 
location, 169. 
picture effect, 170, 174. 
remodeling, 170-174. 
Bathrooms, 14, 25, 35, 47, 97, 
202, 204, 218. 



Beams, 7, 20, 29, 34, 36, 46, 
47> 5S 58, 66, 75, 94, 102, 
122, 130, 131, 151, 185, 
197, 203, 215. 

Bedrooms, 13, 24, 25, 26, 36, 
47> S9> 83 108, 121, 122, 
133, 148, 164, 175, 195, 
206, 218, 230, 239. 
Billiard-room, 68. 
Blinds, 79, 237. 
inside, 80. 
paneled, Vs 
slat, 45, 75. 
solid, 45, 75. 
Venetian, 56. 
Boston, Massachusetts, 18, 42, 

77, 122, 151. 
Boulder Farm, 76-83. 
arch, 81. 
history, 76-77. 
improvements, 78-79. 
location, 76, 78. 
parlor, 80. 

Bradford, Governor, 206. 
Breakfast-rooms, 44, 47, 133, 

173-174. 

Brett house, Franklin, 201-207. 
age, 201. 
dining-room, 206. 
floors, 202. 
heating, 204. 
living-room, 205. 
location, 201. 



[255] 



INDEX 



Brett house, paneling, 207. 

repairs, 203. 

type, 202. 
Bricks, 126, 132. 
Brown, Doctor, 7. 
Brown, Davenport, 116. 
Brown house, Davenport, 116- 
123. 

age, 1 1 6. 

bedroom, 122. 

dining-room, 120. 

furnishings, 119, 1 20, 121, 

122. 

grounds, 122-123. 

living-room, 119. 

location, 116. 

nursery, 121. 

porches, 116, 117, 1 1 8. 

remodeling, 116-122. 

type, 116. 

Brown, Deacon Philip, 76, 77. 
Burroughs, George, 53. 

Cape Cod, 33, 105. 

Cataumet, Massachusetts, 158. 

Ceilings, beamed, 12, 21, 25, 

45> 55 96, 152, 153, 162, 
205-206, 225, 253. 
vaulted, 144. 
Cellars, 7, 30, 98, 251. 
Chambers, see BEDROOMS. 
Chandler house, Howard S., 

247-253. 
age, 247. 

dining-room, 250, 252. 
grounds, 248. 
kitchen, 253. . 
library, 252. 
living-room, 251. 



Chandler house, location, 247. 
remodeling, 247-253. 
type, 247. 

views, 247, 249, 250. 
Charles River, Massachusetts, 

41. 

Chimneys, 7, 9, 18, 19, 31, 43, 
5 53> 69-70, 105, 116, 
125, 144, 182-183, 203, 

217, 237, 249. 
Clapboards, 7, 40-41, 106. 
Closets, 10, 23, 52, 55, 95, 96, 

109, 132, 142, 148, 205, 

218, 220-222, 226, 229, 
250, 251, 253. 

chimney, 57, 218, 222, 226. 
china, 35, 46, 57, 68, 120, 
153, 172, 185, 197, 220, 

221, 250. 

corner, 23, 46, 163, 206, 

220-221. 

linen, 222. 

nightcap, 23, 107. 

secret, 23, 207, 221. 

wainscot, 221, 222. 
Concord, New Hampshire, 77. 
Cottages, fishermen's, 28. 

flecked," 33, 105. 
Cupboards, see CLOSETS. 
Curtis, Frederick H., 42. 
Curtis house, Frederick H., 
42-48. 

age, 42. 

furnishings, 48. 

hardware, 48. 

heating, 48. 

lighting, 48. 

lines of, 43-44. 

location, 41-42. 



[256] 



INDEX 



Curtis house, new wing, 44. 
remodeling, 43-48. 
stairway, 45. 
veranda, 47. 

Danvers, Massachusetts, 236. 
Dens, 12, 46, 58, 83, 104, 121, 

131, 173, 193, 216. 
Dining-rooms, 10, n, 23, 34, 
46, S6-S7> 68, 81-82, 95, 
96, 103, 107, 120, 133, 
142, 152, 162, 174, 185, 
206, 217, 227, 238, 250, 
252. 

Doors, 6, 10, 32, 45, 71-73, 180. 
batten, 72, 122. 
French, 98, 107, 133. 
front, 1 8, 54, 71, 92, 106, 

150, 161, 178, 192, 202. 
glass, 12, 34, 47, 58, 68, 225, 

252. 

panel, 72. 
secret, 45. 

Door-frames, 54, 73, 117, 157. 
Door lights, bull's-eye, 72, 92. 
fanlight, 117, 192, 225. 
side, 73, 117. 
top, 73. 
transom, 72. 
Dover, Massachusetts, 42, 65, 

211. 

Drainage, 17, 
Drawing-room, 104. 
Dudley, Harry, 77. 
Duxbury, Massachusetts, 88, 
89. 



Ells, 8, 9, 43, 44, 51, 53, 66, 
78, 83, 91, 98, 116, 134, 



139, 145, 148, 150, 161, 
181, 212, 217, 249. 
brick, 58. 
Everett, Edward, 151. 

Farmhouses, architectural treat- 
ment, 71, ico, 138, 146. 

axis, 50-51, 1 1 6. 

Colonial, 49, 223. 

construction, 49-51, 116, 147, 
148. 

cottages, 28, 29. 

examination, 29-33. 

frame, 7, 106. 

Georgian, 51, 75, 76, 83, 116. 

heating, 48, 59, 62-65, 102, 
204. 

individuality, 84-88, 146, 
187. 

lighting, 48, 102, 103, 109, 
192, 196, 251. 

lines, 2, 3, 8, 15, 28, 29, 38, 
147. 

location, 8, 16, 17, 18, 33, 
41-42, 53, 62, 65, 66, 76, 
78, 88-89, 105, 116, 127, 
136, 138, 143, 149, 158, 

169, ISO, I9O, 201, 212, 

223, 236, 247. 

painting, 242-247. 

remodeling, 8, 9-14, 19-26, 
34-36, 43-48, 52, 54-60, 
66-70, 78-83, 90-99, 101- 
104, 105-108, 111-123, 130- 

I34> I39-I45, 147, I50-i54> 
159-164, 170-174, 182-186, 
201-207, 214-219, 223-230, 
236-240, 247-253. 
Fireback, 126. 



257 



INDEX 



Fireplace fittings, 68, 82, 125, 

126, 131, 208, 209, 210- 

211, 2l6, 217. 

Fireplaces, 3, 11, 13, 22, 24, 
3i> 35> 46, 50, 55> 56, 58, 
62, 67, 68, 80, 82, 95, 

107, 120, 121, 122, 124- 

127, 130, 142, 143, 144, 
153, 157, 162, 175, 185, 

188, 193, 205, 218, 227, 

230, 240, 250, 252. 
Fences, 106, 123, 137, 140, 144, 

159, 160. 

Flagstones, 75, 167, 224. 
Fletcher, Grace, 77. 
Floors, 21, 30, 32, 35, 46, 55, 

82, 114, 132, 134, 142, 144, 
198-200, 228, 237, 240, 
252. 

brick, 44, 118. 

tiled, 117, 212, 216. 
Flower-boxes, 118, 134, 191. 
French and Indian War, 23. 
Frieze, 22, 24, 25, 216. 
Fuller, Mrs. Genevieve, 65. 
Furnaces, 65. 
Furniture, 22, 56, 59, 80, 81, 

83, 108, 118, 119, 120, 
121, 132, 133, 139, 152, 
163, 184, 194, 196, 205, 
206, 215, 219, 231-235, 
237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 
251, 252. 

Adams, 56. 

Chippendale, 13, 134, 232, 

238. 
Empire, 80, 120, 164, 175, 

234, 235, 241. 
Field, 121, 196, 240. 



Furniture, Hepplewhite, 57, 134, 

206, 232, 238, 240. 
home-made, 26. 
Jacobean, 239. 
Mission, 227, 228. 
old-fashioned, 26, 37, 46, 59, 

68, 96, 108, 121, 131, 143, 

153, 172, 173, 193, 195, 

230, 235, 239. 
Queen Anne, 120, 251. 
Sheraton, II, 47, 48, 119, 

122, 134, 153, 233, 238, 239, 

240. 

white enamel, 48. 
willow, 9, 46, 163, 171, 176. 

Gables, 38, 40, 41, 66. 
Gage, Doctor Homer, 5. 
Gardens, 106, 123, 129, 166- 
168, 170. 

old-fashioned, 6, 19, 98, 140, 
143, 160, 184, 195, 213, 
248. 

water, 9, 19, 213. 
Georgetown, Massachusetts, 18. 
Girandoles, 120, 238. 
Gloucester, Massachusetts, 149. 
Green Meadows, 53-60. 

age, 53- 

alterations, 54-60. 

dining-room, 57. 

door, 54. 

heating, 59. 

living-room, 55. 

location, 53. 

reception-room, 56. 

type, 53- 

wing, 58. 
Grills, 60, 64. 



2 5 8] 



INDEX 



Grounds, 9, 18, 89, 118, 122, 

123, 129, 134, 135, 137, 

138, 140, 141, 150, 159, 

167-168, 182, 206, 213, 
214, 224, 248. 

Hall, George D., 211. 

house, see LONE TREE FARM. 
Hallways, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51, 
54, 92, 96, 97, 118, 151, 
163, 171, 184, 192, 204, 
205, 215, 237, 251. 
Hangings, 13, 22, 55, 56, 96, 
97, 108, 109, 119, 120, 
134, 163, 172, 173, 189, 
190, 192, 193, 194, 205, 
207, 218, 227, 239, 251, 
252. 

Hardware, 12, 48, 55, 177-180. 
Harvey, Governor Matthew, 77. 
Heating, by fireplaces, 62. 
hot-air, 48, 59, 64. 
hot-water, 63, 64, 204. 
steam, 63, 64. 
stoves, 63. 

Hinges, H, 180, 184, 227. 
H and L, 55, 177, 179, 180, 

184, 185. 
strap, 12. 

Hollis, Maine, 190. 
Hopkins house, Walter Scott, 

223-230. 
age, 223. 
attic, 230. 

closets, 226, 227, 229. 
dining-room, 227, 228. 
grounds, 224, 225. 
hardware, 227, 229. 
lighting, 227. 



Hopkins house, living-rooms, 
224, 226, 227. 

location, 223 

parlor, 229. 

remodeling, 223-230. 

type, 223. 

Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 76. 
Howard, Philip B., 42. 
Hunt, William H., 153. 

Ingraham, George Hunt, 8. 
Inches, Doctor Charles E., 127. 
Inches house, Charles E., 127- 

135. 

age, 127. 
den, 131. 
dining-room, 133. 
furnishings, 131, 132, 133, 

I34> 135- 

gardens, 129. 

grounds, 129, 134, 135. 

living-room, 132. 

location, 127. 

remodeling, 130-134. 

swimming-pool, 129. 

value, 128. 

whipping-tree, 128. 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, 169. 
Iristhorpe, 6-14. 

age, 6. 

architectural treatment, 13. 

guest house, 14. 

iris motive, 9. 

lines, 8, 14. 

location, 6. 

remodeling, 8-13. 



Jewett house, see LIMAVODY. 
Josephine, Empress, 235. 



[259 



INDEX 



Kelly, William, 77. 
Killam and Hopkins (Archi- 
tects), 64. 

Kimball, Mrs. William Otis, 20. 
Kitchens, 10, 36, 44, 50, 95, 
98, 1 08, 130, 148, 204, 
239, 250, 253. 
Kittredge, Mabel L., 33. 
Kittredge house, 33-37. 

chimney, 36, 37. 

furnishings, 37. 

lines, 3 4. 

location, 33. 

remodeling, 34-36. 

size, 33. 
Knockers, 178. 

Lafayette, General, 153. 
Latches, 12, 48, 55, 177, 179, 

184, 185. 

Lavatories, 10, 185. 
Lean-to, Dutch, 18. 
Libraries, 10, 12, 22, 46, 104, 

252. 
Lighting, 103. 

candles, 48, 109. 

electric, 48. 

lamps, 48, 109. 

lanterns, 192, 196, 251. 
Limovady, 18-27. 

age, 1 8. 

bedrooms, 25, 26. 

lines, 20. 

location, 18. 

lounge room, 25. 

Missionary room, 24. 

"priest hole," 23. 

remodeling, 19-26. 

studio, 24. 



Lincoln, Roland C., 149. 
Mrs. Roland C., 152. 
Little Orchard, 149-154. 
age, 150. 
china, 152. 
fireplace, 153. 
furnishings, 152, 153. 
location, 149. 
name, 152. 
remodeling, 150-154. 
staircase, 151. 

Living-rooms, 10, n, 21, 22, 
34, 45 55 58, 67, 81, 94, 
95, 103, 107, 119, 132, 153, 
184, 194, 203, 204, 205, 
214, 215, 226, 237, 251. 
outdoor, 8, 9, 12, 21, 44, 68, 
79, 118, 139, 142, 144, 
151, 171, 224. 
Loeffler, Charles Martin, 137, 

138, 142, 144. 
Loeffler house, 136-146. 
atmosphere, 141, 145. 
grounds, 140, 141. 
location, 136, 138, 143. 
music room, 144. 
remodeling, 139-144. 
Loggia, 213. 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, 

76, 77- 

Lone Tree Farm, 211-219. 
age, 211. 

dining-room, 217. 
furnishings, 215-219. 
grounds, 214. 
living-room, 215. 
location, 212. 
sitting-room, 218. 
smoke-house, 214, 215. 



260 [ 



INDEX 



Lone Tree Farm, remodeling, 

214-219. 
vistas, 216, 217. 
wing, 212. 

Magnolia, Massachusetts, 149. 

Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massa- 
chusetts, 149. 

Mantels, 157, 216, 217, 241. 

Medfield, Massachusetts, 116, 
127. 

Morning-rooms, 10, 12, 44, 175, 
204, 205. 

Music-rooms, 144, 196, 239. 

Nawn Farm, 65-70. 

alterations, 66-70. 

chimney, 70. 

dining-room, 68. 

living-room, 67. 

location, 65, 66. 

windows, 66, 70. 
Needham, Massachusetts, 247. 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, 

21. 

New York City, 105. 
North Duxbury, Massachusetts, 

201. 
Nurseries, 121, 186. 

Office, 230. 

Outbuildings, 7, 91, 99, 138. 

Ovens, brick, n, 12, 82, 127, 

131, 181, 217, 229. 
Dutch, 24. 
Overmantel, 22. 

Paint, 9, 21, 42, 45, 134, 140, 
161, 191, 202, 203, 214, 
224, 243-247. 



Paneling, 12, 23, 55, 58, 94, 
95, 120, 130, 154, 162, 

207, 217, 219, 221, 222, 

226. 

Japanese, 13. 
Parlors, 50, 80, 105, 163, 229, 250. 

sun, 216, 236. 
Partitions, 148. 

removal of, 20, 34, 46, 52, 
54, 82, 102, 103, 203, 204. 
Pergolas, 123, 140, 203, 207. 
Pewter, 46, 57, 131. 
Piazza, see PORCHES. 
Plate-rail, 107. 
Porch columns, 44, 73, 78, 79, 

92, in, 112, 114, 117, 224. 
Porches, 3, 34, 40, 42, 47, 79, 

93, 103, 106, 111-116, 117, 
138, 139, 150, 161, 170, 

183, 184, 192, 202, 212, 
213, 224, 236, 249. 

Colonial, 8, 44, 92, 204, 214. 
Georgian, 73, 78, ill, 112. 
sleeping, 40, 44, 47, 59, 67, 
79, no, 115, 117, 140, 
213, 214. 
types of, 112. 
Porch railings, 114. 
Portico, 117. 
Putnam, John Pickering, 122. 

Quillcote, 190-197. 

barn, 196, 197. 

china, 195, 196. 

furnishings, 193, 194, 196. 

location, 190. 

type, 190. 

wall-papers, 193, 194. 
Quincy, Massachusetts, 128. 



26l 



INDEX 



Radiators, 64. 

Reading, Massachusetts, 180, 

223. 
Reception-rooms, 56, 104, 153, 

173, 174- 
Registers, 59. 
Revolution, American, 6, 29, 

5> 156- 
French, 234. 
Roofs, 19, 29, 31, 34, 38-40, 

43, 44, 66, 91, 113, 148, 

190, 224, 226. 
flat, 44. 

gambrel, 38, 149, 181. 
hipped, 39. 
overhang, 41, 75. 
pitched (gable), 6, 38, 44, 

91, 105, 139, 202, 237. 
Rugs, Arts and Crafts, 24. 
fur, 194. 
modern, 217. 
Oriental, 55, 200, 201, 205, 

227. 
rag, 46, 48, 59, 108, 134, 162, 

192, 200, 201, 205, 240. 

Salem, Massachusetts, 150, 235. 
Saugus, Massachusetts, 126. 
Screen, Japanese, 13. 
Servants' rooms, II, 43, 47, 

83, 108, 134, 225. 
Service departments, 10, n, 43, 

59, 69, 78, 103, 116, 121, 

171, 175, 191, 206. 
Serving-room, 249. 
Shaw, Mrs. Josephine Hartwell, 

89, 98. 
Shingles, 41, 91, 106, 149, 243, 

245- 



Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 6, 

I34> 149- 
Shrubbery, 167, 168, 213, 224, 

248. 

Shutters, see BLINDS. 
Sill, 30. 

Sitting-room, 218. 
Sleeping-porches, see PORCHES. 
Smith, Nora, 195. 
South Dennis, Massachusetts, 

105. 

South Yarmouth, Massachu- 
setts, 33, 105. 
Spencer, Robert, 105. 
Spencer house, 105-109. 
fence, 106. 
furniture, 108, 109. 
lighting, 109. 
location, 105. 
new wing, 105, 106. 
wimdows, 106. 

Staircases, 4, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51, 
68, 80, 93, 107, 118, 132, 
136, 142, 151, 153, 184, 
192, 214, 251. 
Stoves, 63. 

Stud, 30, 66, 106, 117. 
low, 13, 44, 52, 56, 102, 152, 
154, 205, 239. 

Three Acres, 88-99. 

living-room, 95. 

location, 88, 89. 

restoration, 90-99. 

studio, 98. 

type, 91. 

vistas, 96. 

windows, 92, 97. 
Tiles, 125. 



262 



INDEX 



"Tired of Work" (picture), 153. 

Trees, 4, 15, 18, 19, 42, 78, 88, 
91, 105, 123, 127, 128, 129, 
134, 140, 141, 144, 150, 

167, 212, 213, 236, 248. 

Verandas, see PORCHES. 

Wainscot, 22, 35, 46, 55, 57, 
80, 81, 118, 120, 130, 143, 
I5S-I57> 163, 173, 192,221, 
226, 238, 241, 251, 252. 
Wakefield, F. M., 42. 
Walls, 29, 41, 46, 47, 67, 69, 
83, 96, 130, 133, 148, 155- 
157, i73 215. 

burlap, 23, 45. 

exterior, 40, 41. 

grass-cloth, 47, 67, 143. 

painted, 21, 24, 25, 35, 68. 

papered, 23, 45, 48, 55, 56, 
57> 59> 69, 81, 83, 119, 
122, 163, 227, 228. 

plastered, 36, 107, 156. 

sheathed, 144, 155. 

stone, 128, 140, 149, 182, 

212, 224. 

tapestry, 252. 
Wall-papers, 3, 20, 23, 48, 80, 

97, 132, 188-190. 
castellated, 237. 
Colonial, 46, 82, 172, 184, 

1 88, 196, 241. 
foliage, 81. 
Georgian, 55. 
Japanese, 97. 
landscape, 21, 57, 59, 119, 

164, 175, 193, 194, 251. 
Morris, 151, 152. 



Wall-papers, Mother Goose, 

121. 

Walpole, Massachusetts, 127. 
Water supply, 17, 204. 
Webster, Daniel, 77. 
White house (Salem), 150. 
Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 190, 

197. 
Willowdale, 158-165. 

additions, 161. 

age, 158. 

dining-room, 162. 

garden, 160. 

lines, 159. 

location, 158. 

parlor, 163. 

tree, 162. 

woodwork, 165. 
Window casings, 74. 

muntins, 73, 74. 

Windows, 6, 9, 34, 35, 52, 58, 
66, 73, 78, 102, 119, 141, 
148, 154, 218, 226. 

bay, 92, 224, 250, 252. 

casement, 74, 93, 94, 97, 193. 

dormer, 8, 34, 36, 40, 54, 92, 
97, 106, 115, 154, 161, 

171, 213, 224, 248. 
eyebrow, 212. 

French, 102, 143, 145, 163, 

172, 174, 206. 
gable, 104. 
oval, 44, 112. 
small-paned, 24, 34, 74, 132, 

228, 236, 251. 
triple, 45, 69, 82, 107. 
Window-seats, 36, 58, 67, 119, 

153, 194, 216, 218, 250. 
Wings, see ELLS. 



[263 



INDEX 



Wood, cypress, 41. 
gum, 67. 
hemlock, 98. 
oak, 155, 199, 200. 

fumed, 68. 

swamp, 21, 125. 
pine, hard, 200. 

North Carolina, 68, 199. 

pumpkin, 4, 158. 

swamp, 23. 

white, 2, 7, 41, 156. 
Woodwork, 3, 4, 7, II, 12, 13, 

22, 23, 24, 25, 35, 45, 46, 



48, 55> 56, 58, 59, 68, 80, 
82, 95, 107, 120, 121, 122, 
131, 142, 155-158, 165, 184, 
192, 215, 219, 226, 227, 228. 
Worcester, Massachusetts, 5. 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 146. 
Wright, Henry W., 236. 
Wright house, 236-241. 
furniture, 237-241. 
lighting, 238, 240. 
location, 236. 
remodeling, 236-240. 
type, 236, 237. ' 



[264] 






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